History of the Fresco in Art.
With the whole beginning of the history of Art the fresco is already there…
In the history of humanity Art makes its appearance with the paleolithic superior, on all the continents, in the form of engravings or of parietal paintings (of Latin bet, wall.) Although the art developed in Western Europe is most known, through the famous frescos of the caves Chauvet, Lascaux, Altamira or Niaux, the same type of creations makes its appearance on the other continents. In Australia, for example, one discovered frescos aboriginals dated of more than 40.000 years. Paintings of Pedra Furada, in Brazil, go back to 12.000 years, perhaps even 17.000 years…
This Art consists of a rupestral art, in the form of paintings, drawings and engravings. Qualified wrongly “ art of the caves ”, whereas certain engravings also appear on rocks with the free air or the walls of rock shelters, in general with the entry of the caves themselves. Although paleolithic art is present in the whole world, it is more abundant in Western Europe where it was studied and indexed in first: also, only this area of the world is in general considered.
But of many rupestral works of art were also discovered in other areas of the world, in Australia and Indonesia (Borneo), South America, and South Africa.
Among the animals, the horse and the bison are most frequent by far, although on certain sites, other species, the such mammoth, the rhinoceros or the stag, prevails. The carnivores are rare and the fish as the birds are represented much in movable art than in parietal art.
Not figurative works are much more abundant than the figurative representations and pose problems of interpretation. They take various forms, of the simple point or feature with complex constructions or vast panels of geometrical signs. The signs can be isolated in a cave, gathered on panels which are reserved to them or closely associated with figurative images. The abstract reasons simplest are many and largely widespread. Most complex are extremely varied and limited in space. They could constitute symbols of distinction associated with groups with hunters.
Rupestral art was initially regarded as purely decorative. But progressively of the discoveries, it appeared clearly that the topics and the site of these works concern a complex structure which remains still obscure: only certain species are represented; paintings, drawings and engravings are often in difficult places of access inside the caves.
The Word Fresco (of Italian fresco, expenses) indicates an artistic technique consisting in painting with water on a coated wall of fresh mortar. With the Rebirth, one called the fresco buon fresco, in opposition to the technique of the fresco secco, used on dry coating.
In the fresco with Italian (buon fresco,) one poses the pigment on the last of a series of superimposed layers of plaster. The painter traces usually an outline, or paperboard, on the penultimate layer. Contours which appear on the paperboard are then accentuated using a dark color. One then gradually spreads out plaster over this draft, while painting progressively, as long as it is wet. When the plaster dries, the lime which it contains reacts chemically with the carbon dioxide of the air to form calcium carbonate; this one constitutes a film which covers the colours and binds to the plaster. This process confers on the colours a particular luminosity : the colours of a fresco are in general fine, translucent and clear, with an aspect often of chalk.
At the Rebirth were developed of new methods, allowing to give them a greater opacity. With this technique, painting must be carried out with speed, and the artist must know in advance the number of coats of paint which the plaster is suitable for absorb. Indeed, an excess of painting deteriorates the support; in this case, it is necessary to eliminate the part badly carried out, then to again spread out plaster to be able to repaint. In the fresco secco, one rubs the dry plaster with the stone sandpapers to withdraw the crust from it, then one wets it with a mixture of water, sand and lime. Used as of Antiquity, this technique was very widespread with the Middle Ages.
In the old Egypt if, for the decoration of the religious buildings, one employs mainly the sculpture in sculpture in the round, under the New Empire, paintings have the preference on the walls of the private tombs. The necropolis of Thebes thus provides invaluable information on the slow evolution of the artistic tradition and on the history of this period.
Painting constitutes for the artists a means of expression much more varied than the sculpture, while enabling them to create tables coloured of the life on the edges of the Nile. The frescos depict in particular work in the royal workshops, with precise details which illustrate the manufacture of all kinds of objects, the massive sculptures to the delicate jewels, and also describe the funerary rites, since the procession towards the tomb until the last prayers dedicated to the late one.
Funerary scene of banquet Thebes, XVIIIe dynasty (1400 before. J. - C.)
In 1957, the excavation of the Tell of Çatal Höyük by the British J.A. Mellaart, according to modern methods, allowed a better knowledge of this Neolithic city which opened out in Anatolia southernmost (Turkey) in thousand-year-old VIIe front J. - C. As in Jericho, the walls are coated with plaster. This coating is applied so frequently that, in a house, one could count 120 successive layers. This application, which ensures an unquestionable hygiene, its use is still current in the Mediterranean islands and in the Sahara, is also used as support with painted frescos with the red blood stone. One of these frescos, found in a domestic furnace bridge, appears only the plan of the city.
Here the side panel of a polychrome Minoan sarcophagus built around 1450 before J. - C. and discovered on the site of Ayia Triadha. The central scene, bordered of decorative planks, described a funerary rite bringing together two women occupied to make drinkings and three men bringing of the present to late, represented with the extreme right-hand side. A player of quadrant is held in the middle of the group.
The Acrobates fresco on bull comes from the throne room of the palate of Cnossos ( 1400 before. J. - C.), preserved today at the archaeological museum of Heraklion (Crete). Cnossos, in Knossós Greek, is the main city of Minoan civilization, to approximately 5 km of the northern coast of Crete, close to the modern city of Héraklion, which knew its apogee during the Bronze Age. The city was founded 3000 before . J. - C. during the old Minoan. A vast palate was built there towards 2000 before J. - C
The discovery in 1932 of the synagog built in IIIe century in Doura-Europos, in Syria, made it possible to carry out many projections in the knowledge of Jewish art. The walls are decorated with frescos, populated human figures and animals, illustrating episodes of the Old Testament.
If the Etruscans privilege the fresco, the Romans make a great use of the two techniques of mural decoration, in particular in the villas of notable (mosaics of Piazza Armerina, Sicily central; frescos of the villa of the Mysteries, Pompéi) and in the public edifices, whose they fix the types (thermal baths, theaters etc).
The Romans invent an ornament, the grotesque ones (Domus Aurea, Rome), which meets a great success with the Rebirth and the beginning of the XVIIIe century.
Etruscan painting appears mainly in the form of fresco on stone or plaster decorating the walls and the ceilings of tombs, in particular in Tarquinia and around Clusium. A small number of painted panels was also preserved. In the frescos of the old period (VI - Ve front century J. - C.), the feature is energetic, the clear and bright colours. The figures are stylized, massive, and often underlined of black. Certain frescos on religious subjects: Caere (v. 550 av. J. - C.); others are drawn from the Greek literature, as the scenes of the life of Achilles in the tomb of the Bulls (530-520 av. J. - C.) with Tarquinia. The Player of double flute is a mural (v. 470 av. J. - C.) of the tomb of the Leopards with Tarquinia. Located on a spur in the valley of Marta (Latium), this important center of Etruscan civilization contains vast necropoles with the varied burials.
In Greek Art the artists paint paintings of wood, possibly fixed at the walls and juxtaposed to form great compositions, but also of true murals. To the usual processes of softening (painting with the water added with adhesive) and fresco was added the polish, containing wax and indelible.
The mysteries of the orgies are introduced in Rome in IIe front century J. - C. Revealed by the frescos of the Villa of the Mysteries of Pompéi, these rites resulting from the Greek celebrations promise a new birth with their followers, similar to that of Dionysos which reappears in each spring. The fresco represents 29 characters of which Silène, the tutor of Dionysos, as well as the Pan god. The ceremonial is completed in a scene of scourging of an young girl to half-naked.
Pompéi was founded towards 600 av. J. - C. by Osques, the city was conquered later by the Etruscans, then by Samnites. The Sylla dictator made of it a Roman colony in 80 av. J. - C. the city was very damaged by a violent one earthquake in 63 apr. J. - C. and was completely buried in 79 apr. J. - C. at the time of an eruption of Vesuvius, as well as the towns of Herculanum and Stabies. Pompéi did not disappear under a mud flow, like Herculanum, but under a layer from 4 to 6 m of ashes and lapilli. The eruption also modified the course of Sarnus and raised the sea front, placing the river and the shore at a considerable distance from the ruins of the currently visible city. Beyond the door of Herculanum, the villa of the Mysteries shelters a whole series of Roman copies inspired of Greek paintings. These frescos recall the initiatory stages of the woman to the mysteries of Dionysos.
We have a good knowledge of the mural. The eruption of Vesuvius in 79 apr. J. - C. preserved at Pompéi, Herculanum, Stabies, Oplontis, a treasure of frescos, like the Player of zither, gathered in four styles, whose classification was extended to the whole of Roman painting.
In Rome the decorations in stucco were current in the interiors; they covered the walls, but especially the vaults. Mouldings divide surfaces into compartments geometrical where take seat of the mythological scenes in relief or painted. The reliefs were raised colours, gildings, incrustations. The basilica of the major Door in Rome (50 after J. - C.) preserves a whole of stuccos of a great artistic interest.
There exists in Ajanta, in India, a remarkable whole of 29 Buddhist caves, including/understanding 4 sanctuaries and 25 monasteries, in a bent basaltic cliff, dominating a river in the center of India (Maharashtra). The majority were excavated and decorated in Ve and VIe centuries under Vakataka, dynasty connected in Gupta. It is one of the more good examples of Indian Buddhist painting and the only remaining vestige of the important pictorial creation of the time Gupta, golden age of Indian art. These refined paintings, carried out with secco on several coats of plaster, illustrate episodes of the life of the Buddha and its existences
former. The bright colours and subtle are posed in flat tints, without shadows, as if the light emanated from the forms, modelled by light coloured rings or juxtaposed points.
Hangzhou (also Hang-Tcheou) is a city of the south-east of China, capital of the province of Zhejiang, close to Shanghai. Proximity of the lake of the West and the Xi hu, a famous site comprising of old tombs and monasteries, as well as many caves decorated with Buddhist frescos, in fact a tourist place.
Founded towards 600 after J. - C., the city was strengthened and accepted its current name. Capital of the Five Dynasties (907-960), it owes its prosperity with its role in the trade of silk. Under the dynasty of Song of the South (1127-1279), it became also the capital, it was a famous arts center.
Monte Albán is an archeological site, centers Zapotèque civilization in Mexico, it is located on a spur overhanging the valley of Oaxaca, to 11 km of the town of Oaxaca. The site established at the top of an artificially levelled hill consists of a central place of 22 ha and of two large platforms in north and the south, the unit is surrounded by many terraces and palate. Pyramids, temples, underpasses, an observatory and a play of ball were also discovered there. One of the oldest buildings, the temple of Danzantes, sheltered steles in low-relief appearing of the characters compared a long time to dancers but who could in fact being the victims of human sacrifices. Arched and decorated tombs frescos, of which some are among most beautiful of the American continent, testify to the power and the richness of this culture.
The site of Bonampak, in the south east of Mexico, shelters Maya frescos discovered in 1946. Going back to 792 after J. - C., paintings are spread on the walls and the vaults of a rectangular building of form and describe a multitude of scenes and characters. The unit, which offers an invaluable testimony on the daily life of the Mayas of the traditional time, is characterized by a great will of realism and the use of bright and varied colours.
Bonampak means “ wall painted ” in Maya. The frescos, in which one distinguishes the red and famous Maya blue, recover the interior walls and the vaults of a small building of three parts. They appear the lord of the place, represented with his two wives, of the children, the servants, the dancers and the musicians, the assemblies of dignitaries and warriors, of the scenes of battles, human sacrifices. Their naturalism makes of it an important component for the knowledge of the rites, the daily life and art Maya.
Fresco of Anastasis. Descent of Christ to the limbs, or Anastasis, was commonly employed by the Byzantine artists to illustrate the Resurrection of Christ. The detail of the fresco, which takes seat in the apse of a funerary vault entirely decorated with murals, proposes the dynamism insufflated at the figure of Christ making leave Adam the limbs. The unit offers an good example of the last phase of the Byzantine art, which developed under the reign of the Paleologists. Towards. 1310. Church of Chora (today Kahriye Camii), Istanbul (Turkey).
Tibet. The construction of the first temples goes up in the middle of VIIe century, with in particular Jokhang de Lhassa. The religious buildings, temples and monasteries, are imposing, large stone masonries on several floors, with flat roofs, from where the monks make resound the long ritual horns. Inside, wood largely used is admirably emphasized, the beams of the ceilings, the capitals of the columns is carved, painted bright colours and harmonious, the heavy doors are raised reasons tantric, and locks and handles out of forged metal, finely engraved. The rooms, vaults and galleries, whose walls are generally decorated with mural frescos, shelter icons, reliquaries and immense libraries. Monasteries of central Tibet like those of Narthang, Gyantsé, and Jonang former to XVe century, or those of Tashilumpo with Shigatsé, Drepung or Potala still to date conceal masterpieces of art Tibetan.
The Middle Ages.
Corollary of a political change, the construction of the cathedrals marks a turning. The trades are organized in corporations, instituting for a long time a rigorous system of organization of work. One rationalizes the tasks for an effectiveness and of a speed of execution able to satisfy the dynamism and the volume of the order. The use of the fresco, prevailing at the Romance age, a taste for the stained glass starting from XIIe century (cathedral of Chartres) succeeds.
Giotto (1267-1337), painter and architect Tuscan.
Frescos of the basilica San Francesco d' Assise
In the neighborhoods of 1290, Giotto starts to work in Assise when the franciscains place to him the first of long series of orders. The artist then starts the realization of his first works for the higher church of the basilica San Francesco by painting a whole of frescos illustrating the Accounts of the Old Testament and the Accounts of New Testament. These first compositions still betray the influence of Cimabue.
From 1292 to approximately 1296, Giotto deals with the cycle of the Scenes of the life of François saint; 28 panels which decorate the median registers with the higher church report the history of the franciscain according to Captioned maior of Bonaventure saint (written between 1260 and 1263), in particular the Test of fire in front of the sultan, Sermon with the Birds and the Marks of François saint celebrates it. Between 1305 and 1308, Giotto works for the third time at Assise. It carries out this time the decoration of the lower church of the basilica with the assistance of its workshop, in particular the vault San Nicola (Scenes of the life of Nicolas saint) and undoubtedly the right transept (Scenes of the childhood of Christ). Between 1315 and 1317, Giotto receives its last order with Assise, the decoration of the vault Santa Maria Maddalena in the lower church (Scenes of the life of holy Marie-madeleine).
The artistic quality of the work of Giotto with Assise was greeted by generations of esthètes and art critics.
In Padoue between 1302 and 1305, Giotto harnesses with the realization of frescos for the Sant basilica' Antonio and the Scrovegni vault. The second unit is one of the most remarkable achievements of the artist. Giotto illustrates there Scenes of the life of Joachim and Anne, Scenes of the life of the Virgin and Scenes of the life of the Christ (of which Presentation of Christ, the Escape in Egypt and the Rise). Its art of the composition, its capacity to charge the scenes with an exceptional dramatic intensity are then with their apogee. Giotto populates its frescos of architectures which rythment space, confer its depth to him and emphasize the dramatic heart of the action. He manages to create a correspondence and a superb harmony between human forms and architecture.
Ordered by the cardinal of the same name polyptyque Stefaneschi was initially placed above the high altar of the Saint-Pierre basilica of Rome. Of great dimension, it is painted on the two faces. The central shutter represents a Christ blessing, the shutter of left a Crucifixion of Pierre saint, and the shutter of right-hand side a Decapitation of Paul saint..
The art of Giotto marks a crucial stage in the history of the pictorial representation in Occident. Being diverted Byzantine influence, the painter explores a new manner of representing the space and introduced into his works a direction of reality, alive, the completely new one. Masaccio and later Michel-Angel count among those at which the solutions suggested by the Master find the greatest echo.
Masaccio (1401 - 1428) is an Italian painter pertaining to the first generation of Quattrocento whose innovations fall under the line of the research undertaken, at the previous century, by Giotto on the space representation and the naturalism of the figuration. The very first known work of Masaccio, the Triptych of San Giovenale, gone back to 1422 indicates the influence of Brunelleschi and Donatello that Masaccio regards as its main truths. In 1422 it meets Masolino da Panicale, a painter already experienced, with whom it binds friendship. The two men go in 1423 to Rome and, on their return, they decide on an association which will last until the death of Masaccio. If the two artists sometimes worked in concert, they more generally shared the task, driving of face several building sites. The collaboration of Masaccio and Masolino becomes all its extensive with the frescos of the Brancacci vault of the church Santa Maria del Carmine about 1425; Masaccio carries out its most famous works there: Driven out Adam and Eve of the Paradise, the Payment of the tribute, Baptism of the neophytes, Saint Pierre making alms, Saint Pierre curing the patients by his shade, as well as the Resurrection of the son of Theophilus and Saint Pierre in pulpit, not finished in 1428 and completed fifty years later by Filippino Lippi. The restoration of these frescos made it possible to find the colors of origin and part of the decorative band.
Around 1431 Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) carries out for the Cloister worm) of the church Santa Maria Novella of Florence two frescos taking seat in two glasses, one sheltering the Creation of the animals and the Creation of Adam, the other the Creation of Eve and the Original sin. About 1435, it is in Prato to carry out there the frescos of the vault of the Assumption of the cathedral: Scenes of the life of the Virgin and Scenes of the life of Stephan saint.In 1445, Paolo Uccello gains Padoue, at the request of his/her friend Donatello. With this last, it decorates the house with the Vitaliani family of frescos monumental, known as of the Giants, (disappeared today), appearing of the famous characters. Of return to Florence in 1447, the artist carries out Scenes of the life of the Moines saints for the cloister of the church San Miniato Al Goes up.The talent of Paolo Uccello finds one of its higher expressions in the three famous panels representing the Battle of San Romano painted for the Medici-Riccardi palate of Florence, between 1456 and 1460. In 1460, Paolo Uccello paints Saint Georges and the dragon. Among its other works of importance also let us quote the night Hunting (1468), animated of a powerful effect of prospect, which describes with happiness the agitation caused by the dispersion of the pack, the escape of the animals and the dash of the riders. These elements distributed in the lower register of the table according to a reason for plank contrast strongly with the repetitive rate/rhythm of the tree trunks.
With the series of the frescos of the History of the true cross (1452-1459), inspired of the Golden Legend of Jacques de Voragine, Piero della Francesca (1416 - 1492) reached the apogee of its Art. The artist is called by the humanistic patron Giovanni Bacci to continue the realization of these paintings intended to decorate the principal vault of the chorus of the church San Francesco d' Arezzo. The unit, organized in a way symbolic system and nonchronological, is marked by the exceptional narrativity of the compositions and the geometrical aspect conferred on the representation of space. Once again the painter, who retained the lessons of his former Master Domenico Veneziano, there been the proof of a particularly subtle direction of the colour and shows a luminous and clear pallet there. Take in particular place, in an architectural decoration swarming with studied details, the episode of the Visit of the Queen of Sheba to king Solomon, that of the Dream of Constantin and the Annunciation.
At the same time, Piero della Francesca carries out the Resurrection of Christ (1458), work of a great spiritual force and exceptional solemnity, very whole dominated by the imposing stature of the Saver.
The nickname ghirlandaio (maker of garlands) comes directly from the activity from Tommaso Bigordi, father of Domenico and goldsmith of XVe century, famous for its money garlands intended for female caps.
Domenico di Tommaso di Currado Bigordi (1449-1494) is the most famous member of the Ghirlandaio family.
The Birth of the Virgin Drawn from the Scenes of the life of the Virgin and Jean-Baptiste saint is a fresco of Ghirlandaio which decorates the Tornabuoni vault of the church Santa Maria Novella. The space, decorated with the antique, is divided into multiple plans where takes seat each protagonist of the scene: the biblical meeting of Anne and Joachim is represented in top of the stairs on the left, in the foreground an young girl pours water in an earthenware jar and is on the point of bathing the Marie child. Knelt on the left of the child, the nurse turns the face towards the girl of the silent partner, Ludovica Tornabuoni, accompanied by 4 women, her continuation. The parturient is on her bed on the right. Under the plank in relief representing a round of children, one can read a Latin inscription: Nativitas killed Dei genitrix Virgo gaudium annuntiavit universo mondo, “Your birth, Vierge and mother of God, proclaimed the joy with the whole world”.
Domenico Ghirlandaio, in its fresco: the Appearance of the Angel with Zacharie in the temple, represents the humanistic ones of the court of Médicis. This fresco belongs to a whole of 7 scenes of the life of Jean-Baptiste saint carried out on the right wall of the central vault of the church Santa Maria Novella of Florence.
Domenico Ghirlandaio, which is one of the largest Masters of painting florentine and directs a famous workshop in company of his brothers Benedetto and Davide, also works during some time in Rome for the pope Sixte IV. The art of Domenico, its direction of the observation and the narration is worth to him moreover the favor of the noble families of Florence of which it represents the members in contemporary costumes in its religious frescos.
Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) is also Florentin painter.
Between 1481 and 1482, it accomplishes a stay in Rome during which it carries out for the account of Sixth IV 3 frescos of the Sixtine vault respectively illustrating the Tests of Brace, the Punishment of the rebels and the Temptation of Christ. These compositions, whose subjects evoke all continuity between Old and New Testament, give to the painter the opportunity to implement its narrative talents.
Those are exploited once again in a whole of four panels taking as a starting point the Décaméron de Boccace. Illustrating the History of Nastagio degli Onesti (1482-1483). They have an almost supernatural dimension.
During last years with the service of Médicis, Sandro Botticelli also carries out many works of religious inspiration. One can quote among them the figures of Saint Sebastien (1474), with the face curiously impassive and of Saint Augustin (1480), fresco of the Ognissanti church, Florence).
The style of Sandro Botticelli, whose dimension melancholic person nothing but does be reinforced with the passing of years, is continuously been useful by a great control of the drawing, the use of sinuous contours and lines undulating and fluid like by the evocation of characters equipped with lengthened guns having a subtle and refined grace and an elegance. Illustrating by its contradictory phases the importance of the spiritual conflicts which agitate Italy of the end of XVe century, the art of Botticelli exerts a direct influence on the manner of its single pupil Filippino Lippi, the son of his former Master. Filippino Lippi is undoubtedly the only one to take as a starting point the key of Sandro Botticelli, very quickly forgotten with the profit in the “new way” suggested by men such as Léonard de Vinci, Michel-Angel or Raphaël. The Florentin Master of the “beautiful” ideal was redécouvert at the XIXe century, in particular by the British artists claiming movement pre raphaélit.
Cene of da Vinci is undoubtedly the most popular fresco of Western art. It was carried out by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), between 1495 and 1497, for the refectory of the Dominican convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan.
Work has the originality to represent the moment when Christ announces to the apostles that one of them will betray it. The intention of the artist is to restore with the greatest possible expressivity the diversity of the reactions of the various protagonists. While agitation or amazement gains his/her companions, Jesus remains perfectly motionless. The composition very whole is designed for magnifier the spiritual range of his figure, represented in an insulation symbolizing the tragic and imposing dimension of its destiny. The top of its body is registered in an isosceles triangle whose geometrical rigor contributes to the creation of a feeling of stability and of force which contrasts strongly with the confused and agitated mass consisted the groups of apostles. Instead of introducing the twelve apostles like individual characters, it divides them into dynamic groups of three, framing the figure of the Christ, isolated in the center from the table. At the background, a pale and distant landscape, seen through a rectangular opening in the wall, locates the event in nature. Léonard de Vinci then joins again the dialog with a style introduces more than one generation before by Masaccio.
The face of Christ, posting an expression of calm and meditation, is detached clearly on a bottom from luminous sky. By contrast, the group of the apostles is characterized by a large variety of postures, gestures and facial expressions, which must much with the very great number of preparatory drawings carried out by the artist. While on the left part the first group looks intensely towards Jesus, Judas sitting immediately on the line of Christ seems to outline a light retreat. It should be noted that here Judas, unlike the traditional representations, is not represented with the variation of the group, other side of the table, but with the right in the middle of the assembly. Saint Jean posts an intense meditation. On the right part, the group located immediately beside Jesus is entirely turned towards him, concerning almost, holy Thomas expressing his incredulity the finger tended towards the sky. The apostles located at the end of the table seem as for them absorptive in an extremely animated discussion.
To carry out this composition, Leonard0 da Vinci developed a new technique which appears extreme brittleness quickly. The degradation of painting required during the history of many renovation works, the last of them having taken end in 1999, which however never managed to durably restore the original beauty of Cene. Of a dimension of 4,60 × 8,80 meters the fresco is carried out according to a complex composition which rests on various geometrical formulas intended to create a rigorous and admirably balanced ordinance various parts. This diagram of construction testifies to the research undertaken by the Master on the mathematical rules governing the harmony of the proportions.
Luca Signorelli. (1445-1523) is an Italian painter of the Rebirth appearing among the largest schoolmasters ombrienne.
Born in Cortone, Luca Signorelli is associated to the painter Tuscan Piero della Francesca, of which he was probably the pupil and of which he followed the laws of the prospect. By its control of the human anatomy, it takes as a starting point the work of Antonio del Pollaiolo. It has the direction of the full compositions.
In 1481, it belongs to the team of painters called in Rome by the pope Sixte IV to work with the Sixtine vault. The Virgin with the Child with four saints and an angel (1484), retable carried out for a vault of the cathedral of Perugia, reveals her progressive control of the anatomy. Its masterpieces are the vast frescos representing of the scenes of hell, purgatory and paradises (1499-1504) which decorate the walls of the vault San Brizio, in the cathedral of Orvieto. Inspired by the Divine comedy of Dante Alighieri, these frescos include/understand representations of the End of the world and last Judgment of a great dramatic capacity. These characters with the majestic port, characterized by the realism of the anatomical details, influenced Michel-Angel and Raphaël later.
Titien (1490-1576) is a Venetian painter, whose role was paramount in the development of the Venetian school of Cinquecento.
Born in Pieve di Cadore, in the north of Venice, Titien (in Italian Tiziano Vecellio) studied in Venice at Giovanni Bellini.
In Padoue, in 1511, Titien carries out the 3 frescos of the History of Antoine saint, for Scuola del Santo.
Rosso Fiorentino. (1494-1540) is a painter of the Rebirth, leader of the first Florentin mannerism. Born in Florence, Giovanni Battista di Jacopo di Guasparre, said it Rosso Fiorentino or Rosso, is formed in the workshop of Andrea del Sarto where it côtoie most probably this initiator of the mannerism which is the painter Jacopo Pontormo. Its research takes their rise starting from the Deposition (1521), painting considered as its masterpiece, in which it states a violent critic of the reappearing classicism. Indeed, the figures are treated according to the module of the cube, the prospect not following the diagram for usual construction, but superimposing the plans in jerk. Lastly, the colours structure the forms and are not satisfied to double and underline the drawing.
From 1530 with its death (in Paris), Rosso is the official painter of François the first and directs with Francesco Primatice the decoration of the castle of Fontainebleau. One owes him the mythological frescos of the François 1st gallery of this same castle.
Paolo Véronèse (1528-1588) is a Venetian painter of the Rebirth, author in particular of the Wedding at Cana. The frescos of the Barbaro villa, at Maser (1560-1562), one of its rare decorative cycles to be preserved, highlight its research on the direction and the perception of the pictorial space confronted with architectural space.
Véronèse always carried to most its taste for the technique in painting. Its research on the tonal chromatism, which juxtaposes the colours rather than it does not synthesize them, is regarded today as the major characteristic of its work, which opposes it, in addition, in Titien. Its work on the light is the result of an intuitive practice of the complementary colours which will be theorized three centuries later.
Born in Venice (Corte di San Domenico, in the district of Castello), Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, said Giambattista Tiepolo, learns the rudiments from its art in the workshop of Gregorio Lazzarini (1655-1730). However, the artist who marks the beginnings of his career is his Master, the virtuoso of clearly-obscure Giambattista Piazzetta. In 1717, Tiepolo is received in the corporation of the Venetian painters then wife, two years later, the sister of the painter Francesco Guardi. As of the years 1715-1716, he works at the same time for the government of the Venetian Republic and the old patricians families: in particular the Sacrifice of Isaac (1724, glasses of the church Santa Maria dei Dereletti, known as LED' Ospedaletto) and Capacity of the eloquence (v. 1724-1725, Palazzo Sandi). It carries out the remarkable frescos of the Valmarana Villa in Vicenza and in particular the fresco representing Apollon and the continents. In each glasses a continent is illustrated in an imposing way.
Benozzo Gozzoli. (1420-1497) is an Italian painter, one of the schoolmasters florentine, famous for its frescos with the elegant and invaluable narrative style.
Realized for the Medici-Riccardi palate in Florence, the cycle of the Procession of the magi is spread on three walls of the family vault and indicates Gozzoli like a brilliant decorator and a skilful narrator. By their often anecdotic tone, his work has a quality of invaluable historical document. In the middle of landscapes of the valley of Arno, one can recognize the portraits of Pierre and Laurent de Médicis, like those of Pandolfo Malatesta (on the brown horse) and of Gian Galeazzo Sforza (on the white horse).
Its works, for the majority of the frescos, are still marked by Trecento; they are characterized by the realism of the details and the promptness of the colours. Most famous of enter they are those which represent various episodes of the Life of Augustin saint (San Gimignano, 1464-1465) and especially the series carried out for Campo Santo of Pisa, illustrating several scenes drawn from the Old Testament (Life of Noah, Visite of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon, etc 1469-1485).
Michel-angel (1475-1564), sculptor, architect, painter, draftsman and Italian poet.
Charged by the pope Jules II with decoration with the ceiling with the vault Sixtine (40 m × 13 m), Michel-Angel proposes an iconographic program complexes, of inspiration neoplatonician, composed of 9 episodes of the Genesis (6 episodes of Creation and 3 episodes of the life of Noah). The lower part is rhythm by 10 naked angels sited on plinths of stone and 12 monumental thrones on which the Indicators (Sibyls and Prophets) sit, the Ancestors of Christ taking lower seat, in glasses and the pendent ones. Production in the beginning typically Florentine, as well from the formal point of view as from the chromatic point of view, work however marks a crucial step in Western painting, the boldness of the solutions of prospect implemented and acidity for the colours employed, exerting a deep influence on the artists mannerists of the following generation. Michel-angel paints some of the most beautiful representations of all times. The revelation of work, the morning of All Saints' day 1512, caused a unanimous admiration, Vasari reporting that “one saw the world running of to discover it everywhere, and that left the amazed and dumb people”.
The frescos of the vault of the Sixtine vault, occupies it of May 1508 until October 1512. He works lying on the back, on a scaffolding assembled above the vault.
On the vault of the papal vault, it conceives a complex system of decoration, including/understanding 9 scenes drawn from the book of the Genesis, starting with God separating the light from darkness and including/understanding the Creation of Adam, the Creation of Eve, Temptation, the Fall of Adam and Eve, and the universal Flood. For the preparation of this gigantic work, Michel-Angel draws many studies and paperboards, thus designing tens of characters and installations. These impressive and powerful representations, which show a perfect control of the human anatomy and movement, radically transformed the course of the evolution of
painting in Occident. In November 1536, Michel-Angel undertakes in Rome the execution of the last Judgment for the wall of the furnace bridge of the Sixtine vault. This fresco, largest of the Rebirth, 1370 × 1220 cm, represents the episode
apocalyptic of the day of the Judgment. On both sides of Christ, the elected officials (on the left) are carried by an upward movement, while damnés (on the right-sided of the fresco) fall towards the Hells. Ordered by Clement VII but carried out under the pontificate of Paul III Farnèse, the fresco fits in one
space deprived of any architecture: a hot and blue light (lapis lazuli) bathes the characters, the elected officials, damnés and the ressuscities, distributed around the central figures of Christ and the Virgin.
The fresco, inaugurated on December 25th, 1541, caused scandal and admiration.
The Farnesine Villa is a residence of the Rebirth built along the Tiber in Rome between 1505 and 1518, famous for its frescos of Raphaël, Sebastiano del Piombo and Sodoma. In the gallery of the ground floor, old loggia which opened formerly on the gardens, the panels of the vault, separated by garlands from flowers and fruits painted by Giovanni da Udine, present the frescos of the Legend of Psyché and Cupid de Raphaël and its workshop (Jules Romain and Francesco Penni). In the close part, the vault was painted by Peruzzi, the glasses by Sebastiano del Piombo (1511-1512), Raphaël having realized, in 1513, celebrates it fresco of the Triumph of Galatée. On the floor the room known as “of the prospects is”, with the walls painted by Peruzzi misleads the eye of it, as well as an old room to lay down known as “bridal room”, in particular decorated with fresco by the Weddings with Alexandre and of Roxane, signed of the painter Sodoma in 1516.
The decoration of the Cabins, long gallery 65 m, equipped with twelve spans and located on the second floor of the court Saint-Damask, is one of creations that Raphaël carried out in the Vatican during its Roman stay. The ceilings are decorated fifty-two scenes.
In 1508, Raphaël (1483-1520) is named official painter of papacy. It must leave Florence for Rome where it is charged to carry out decoration with frescos of the rooms of the apartment of the pope Jules II (Stanze). The room of the Signature, certainly most famous, shelters 4 frescos, of which the School of Athens.
This illustration of the Philosophy, registered in a semicircular format, makes it possible the artist to gather major figures of the ancient thought. Plato holding one of his dialogs, Timée, and Aristote, its work Ethics with the hand, chair the assembly of wise, in the center of the composition. The gestures of the two main characters, the first tightens his hand towards the Sky while the second indicates the Earth, offer a notation symbolic of their philosophical designs. They clearly mark the opposition between the Platonic theory of the Ideas and the rationalism and empiricism preached by Aristote.
The 2 characters take seat within a plank. Among the very great number of philosophers represented, one can in particular see on their left Socrate in the middle of a group of young people, of which Alcibiade. In the foreground, on the left, Pythagore is surrounded by its disciples, while on Euclide right-hand side holds a compass. In the center, Diogène, partly stripped, is wide with ease on the steps. Many members of the pontifical entourage, such Leonardo da Vinci who offers his face to Plato, were used as models to the various characters.
The scene takes seat in an imposing decoration, made up of a succession of large arcades with boxes directly inspired by the achievements of Roman Antiquity.
The harmony of the composition, strongly rhythm by the scientist staging of architectures and the characters, is reinforced by the flexibility of the lines and the attitudes, as by the softness of the feature. The control of the prospect, been useful by the dynamism of the trompe-l'oeil and creepage distances superb, makes it possible to give an exceptional depth to the work which opens on a sky of a limpid blue. The fresco, the purpose of which was also to illustrate continuity between the ancient thought and the theses neoplatonicians of the Rebirth, counts among the most remarkable works of the painter.
Raphaël 1483-1520) is a large Master of the Rebirth, he is contemporary of Michel-Angel.
At the Vatican Raphaël carries out the decoration of the cabins of the pontifical palates, the gallery is long 65 m, it is equipped with 12 spans and is located on the second floor of Damask the Saint court. The ceilings are decorated of 52 scenes. The unit, which must to the pupils of the Master much and was called the “ Bible of Raphaël ”, represents the successive stages of Creation and puts in scene God the Father. It is here that the fresco is the Creation of the animals as well as the fresco of the separation of water and other biblical episodes.
The fresco Attila stopped by Leon the Large one, 1514, is in the room of Héliodore of the pontifical Palates, second part of the apartment of the pope Jules II in the Vatican after the room of the Signature.
The scene represents holy Leon 1st (under the features of Leon X) who dissuades Attila to put at bag Rome by offering a money large sum to him.
After the death of the pope Jules II in 1513, and the accession of Leon X, the influence and the responsibilities for Raphaël increase. It is named architect as a chief of the Saint-Pierre basilica in 1514, and, one year later, director of all the excavations of antiquities of Rome. Because of these many activities, it carries out only part of the third room of the palate of the Vatican, stanza LED' Incendio (room of the fire, 1514-1517). This work marks a passage to a strongly intellectual painting. It provides hardly the paperboards of the fourth part, the room of Constantin, whose decoration is carried out by its pupil Jules Romain. For this period, it also designs ten tapestries illustrating the Acts of the Apostles of Christ for the Sixtine vault. Raphaël also carries out the frescos (Sibyls) of the Chigi vault of the Church Santa Maria della Pace, as well as architecture and decorations of the Chigi vault of the Church of Santa Maria del Popolo and celebrates it fresco of the Farnésine villa : triumph of Galatée (1513).
Major representative of the Italian mannerism and the Sienan school Domenico Beccafumi (1486-1551) composed of many frescos for “ Salted del Concistoro ” (room of the Council) of the public palate of Sienne, in a style characterized by a daring pallet and surprising lightings. Its most remarkable works are the retailed and the frescos of the ceiling which it carries out for Palazzo Pubblico of His (“salted del Concistoro”, 1529). In 1529 it represents in a fresco the Death of Spurio Melio. It decorates also Oratorio de San Bernardino with His. Faithful to the principles of the mannerism, Beccafumi specializes in strange lightings, the chromatic irrealism and the éthérés characters placed in the middle of imaginary decorations, sometimes referring ludic to Michel-Angel.
Andrea del Sarto (1486-1530) is an Italian painter of the high Rebirth. Then it opens, with the painter Florentin Francisco di Cristofano Franciabigio, a workshop which becomes very flourishing. In 1525, for the cloister of Santissima Annunziata, it produces the glasses of the Madonna to the bag, often regarded as its most succeeded work. In 1529, one year before its death, it completed its last important fresco, Cène, painted in the refectory of the convent of San Salvi, near Florence. Its work, which combines balance of the compositions and density of the forms to an undeniable poetry was worth to him of Giorgio Vasari the qualifier of painter " without faults ", it remains a long time a reference for the artists of the following generation, like Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino.
The Parmesan, (1503-1540) is an Italian painter.
Born in Parma, Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola or Mazzuoli, said it or, the Parmesan is formed in the Michele, Parmigianino workshop his paternal uncles and Pier Ilario Mazzola. On a ordering of the count Gian Galeazzo Sanvitale, the Parmesan also decorates a stuffetta, water small room of the castle of Fontanellato. The design of the murals (Diane and Actéon, 1522-1524, according to the Metamorphoses of the Latin poet Ovide), distributed between the 13 glasses of the boudoir, evokes by its invaluable elegance and its refinement the manner of Corrège. The Parmesan was however never strictly speaking the pupil of Corrège of which, as a rival, he very early dissociated himself, as well by dominant cold, strongly intellectualized, the even hermetic one of its style as by the long-lived and nervous graphic layout. This last quality is attested besides in its many drawings and etchings, technique which it is one of the first Italian artists to test. Having regained Parma in 1531, the Parmesan is seen entrusting by the chapter of the church Santa Maria della Steccata the frescos has moderated apse and vault of the chorus of the church. Defying génialement the established uses, it is the vault itself which it recovers of painted boxes with rosoni (rosettes), figures (of the insane virgins and the draped wise virgins) being painted with the repercussions of the vault, on each transom of the arc, in the intersections of the boxes.
Agnolo Bronzino (1503-1572) is an Italian painter, representing Florentin mannerism. Born in Monticelli, close to Florence, Agnolo di Cosimo di Mariano Tori, said Bronzino, makes its first weapons in the workshop of Raffaelino del Garbo, then, as from 1518, becomes the pupil of Jacopo da Pontormo. It takes part in the sides of its Master to the painting of the frescos of chartreuse of Galluzzo (1523-1525), then with the decoration of the Capponi vault of the church florentine of Santa Felicità (1526-1528). Bronzino is again the collaborator of Pontormo (villas of Careggi and Castello). In 1539, it takes part in the active festive decorations for the weddings of Cosme Ier de Médicis and Éléonore de Tolède, for which it carries out in particular four low-reliefs of bronze painted in trompe-l'oeil. Charged with the decoration of the vault of same Éléonore in Palazzo Vecchio (frescos of the Flood, the bronze Snake and the Passage of the Red Sea), it becomes in 1540 the official portraitist of the court of Médicis with Florence.
Architect and Italian painter Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1537) were born close to His, Baldassare (or Baldassarre) Peruzzi is trained with painting with His where it carries out under the control of Pinturicchio the frescos of the vault San Giovanni of Duomo. Under the protection of the Sienan family of Chigi, it goes to Rome in 1503 when it continues its studies of architecture while studying Roman antiquities, and is subject to the influence of Raphaël and Bramante. He undertakes as from 1509 the construction of the villa of countryside of the banker Agostino Chigi on the edges of the Tiber, villa called today Farnésine, famous for its elegant proportions and the frescos misleads of it the eye of the Room of the Prospects (or Room of the Columns). In 1516, it paints with fresco, under the control of Raphaël, the Ponzetti vault of the church Santa Maria della Pace. In 1520, with died of Raphaël, it is engaged as architect as a chief by the pope Leon X to continue work of the Saint-Pierre Basilica.
Peruzzi has also worked with decoration of villa of cardinal Jules of Médicis (future Clement VII), which will become the villa “Madama” (villa of Marguerite of Austria), and for the Orsini family the palate built which occupies the high part of the theater of Marcellus.
Born in Bologna in Italy Primatice (1504-1570) is painter, draftsman, stucco worker and architect and it settles in France. It is one of the most famous representatives of the school of Fontainebleau. It is famous for its work of decoration to the castle of the same name that it tinted of an innovative esthetics mannerist.
In 1532, at the request of king François 1st, Primatice gains France to take part in work of decoration of the castle of Fontainebleau at the sides of its compatriot Rosso Fiorentino who directs the building site then. The young collaborator obtains more autonomy for decoration of the the " room of the queen" (1534-1537)
then works with the gallery François Ist (1534-1537). The influence of the esthetics of the Parmesan appears quickly in the achievements of Primatice which develops little by little a style characterized by the description of female figures to the very lengthened gun, equipped with flexible and elegant silhouettes.
With died of Rosso in 1540, Primatice is seen entrusting the work management of decorations of the castle. Between 1541 and 1544, it deals with the decoration of the room of the duchess of Stamps. It there carries out frescos illustrating the life of Alexandre the Large one and surmounts the door of naked caryatids in stucco,
whose installations are articulated according to a serpentine line. This unit constitutes one of rare testimonys remaining of its talents of stucco worker. For king François Ier, Primatice goes on several occasions to Italy from where it brings back bronze mouldings of ancient sculptures.
The Farnèse palate is a palate of the Rebirth, built in Rome between 1514 and 1589 per Antonio da Sangallo the Young person, Michel-Angel, the Flat-bottom one and Giacomo Della Porta. This palate is today the seat of the embassy of France at Quirinal. The powerful cardinal Alexandre Farnèse (become pope in 1534, under the name of Paul III) had chosen this palate like residence for his family, this monument is one of the size of the town of Rome. Inside the palate, the hall of entry opens on the cortile (or interior court) resembles, all things considered, with a basilica with three naves. The palate is decorated with the frescos with Francesco Salviati, 1552-1558, decoration completed by the Taddeo brothers and Federico Zuccari after 1564. But the masterpiece is without question the vault decorated with fresco with the large gallery of Carrache (or Farnèse gallery). Painted between 1597 and 1601 (1604 for the whole of the frescos, including the mural frescos) by the Master bolognaise Annibal Carrache (helped of his/her Augustin brother and a team of pupils, of which Francesco Albani, Dominiquin, Sisto Badalocchio, Innocenzo Tacconi, Antonio Mario Panico and Giovanni Lanfranco), these frescos are inspired by fables alexandrines of Greek mythology and the Metamorphoses of Ovide. Of a very daring treatment, these frescos in form of epithalamium celebrate the triumph of the love (triumph of Bacchus and ARIANE; myth of Polyphème and Galatée). This vault will inspire in particular Rubens and especially Nicolas Poussin which will make the meticulous study of it before painting the ceilings of Louvre.
Taddeo Zuccari (1529-1566) is the elder one of the two Zuccari brothers. Born in Sant' Angelo in Vado (duchy of Urbino), he works with his Ottaviano father and in the workshop of Pompeo da Fano. Taking for models Polidoro da Caravaggio and Perin del Vaga, he chooses a style mannerist inspired all at the same time the descriptive realism of Raphaël and monumentality and worship of the form of Michel-Angel, but also in full adequacy with the pietism and the rising rigorism of the Counter-Reformation. In 1551, it goes to Urbino to the court of Guidobaldo della Rovere. It there completes the frescos of the chorus of the cathedral and returns to Rome in 1553. Taddeo Zuccari then receives many orders for the realization of historical frescos, on behalf of the popes Jules III, Paul IV and Magpie IV as well as cardinals Ranuccio and Alexandre Farnèse, and Hippolyte d' Este (villa of Tivoli). It takes part in particular, under the direction of Prospero Fontana, with the decoration of the villa Giulia (Dance of Diane and of the nymphs, 1553; room of the Seven Hills, 1559-1561. It carries out in particular the completion of the frescos, started with Francesco Salviati, of the room of the Farnésiens Records of the Farnèse palate of Rome. As for the frescos of the palate Farnèse of Caprarola (conceived by the architect the Flat-bottom one and today residence of summer of the presidency of the Italian Republic) that Taddeo Zuccari undertakes on behalf of the cardinal Alexandre Farnèse as from 1559, they constitute today the most recognized work of the painter.
To Parma, Antonio Allegri says Corrège (1489-1534) undertakes as from 1520 the realization of a program of frescos for the convent Benedictine San Paolo. On the northern wall of the part, it decorates the mantelpiece of a scene representing Diane on her tank. It also decorates each of the 16 districts with the cupola of glasses appearing in greyness of the ancient sculptures. Each one of it is surmounted figures of putti described within oval frameworks themselves included in a flowered pergola. Fruit garlands surmount these scenes full with charm. The unit, which refers to a humanistic iconography strong complex, takes as a starting point the art of Andrea Mantegna as well as that of Raphaël.
From 1520 to 1524 Corrège is charged to carry out the frescos of the church San Giovanni Evangelista, in Parma. In the apse, it composes a Crowning of the Virgin and, on the cupola deprived of lantern, painted the Vision of Jean saint in Patmos. With 1526 to 1530, the painter decorates the octagonal cupola with the cathedral of Parma of an Assumption of the Virgin. He deploys there a crowd of characters who take seat in the middle of clouds on several levels of concentric circles, creating a visual effect of spiral. The varied pallet is dominated by hot tonalities. Seeming at the same time turned towards the concerns of the Rebirth and announcing the first developments of the Baroque art, Corrège occupies a special place in the history of Art Master of the Parmesan, this major artist of its time had a notable influence on posterior painters, in particular Annibal Carrache.
The Sodoma (1477-1549) is a Sienan painter whose work ensures the artistic transition between the end from the Rebirth and the beginning from the mannerism. Born in Vercelli (Piedmont), Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, said Sodoma, nickname which, according to Vasari, was allotted to him for presumedly licentious manners, of which he praised himself, is the pupil of Giovanni Martino Spanzotti (1456 - 1526). He remains in Milan as from 1497 when he is subject to very early the influence of Léonard de Vinci. Its early works testify to an lively interest for research of the Master, in particular the “ sfumato ”. In July 1503, he undertakes decoration with fresco of the refectory of the abbey olivétaine Sant' Anna in Camprena, close to Pienza, then, continuing unfinished work left by Luca Signorelli in 1497-1498 with the cloister of the abbey of Assembles Oliveto Maggiore (cycle of 9 frescos where are recalled Scenes of the life of saint Benoît de Nursie) and 27 other frescos (1505-1508). In Rome Sodoma paints in fresco the room to be laid down (known as room of the weddings) of the Chigi villa on the edges of the Tiber (this villa will be known later under the name of Farnésine after its repurchase in 1579 by the cardinal Alexandre Farnèse). The fresco of the weddings, carries the print of Léonard de Vinci and Raphaël, as attest the beauty suave of it faces and bodies and the voluptuous grace of the angels which volètent around the bridal bed where Roxane rests almost stripped. The work of Sodoma influenced many Sienan painters and more particularly the painter mannerist Domenico Beccafumi.
Painter and sculptor bolonais Annibal Carrache, (1560-1609) preceded the movement baroque and beat in breach excesses of the mannerism. Annibal Carrache is distinguished in the realization from decorations with large-sized fresco, as the lyric cycle devoted to the Stories of Romulus and Remus (1588-1592) for the palate Magnani (today Salem) of Bologna. This cycle constitutes a kind of proclamation artistic thanks to which Annibal from the start is recognized like the artist more endowed with the Carrache family. Since 1595, Annibal settles in Rome. Already celebrates for its frescos carried out in Bologna, it is charged to paint the
ceilings of the gallery of the Farnèse palate in Rome (1597-1602). In 1595, the cardinal Odoardo Farnèse (1573-1626, wire of Alexandre Farnèse) made come to Rome Annibal Carrache for decoration from the apartments from its Roman palate. Annibal Carrache realizes what constitutes, today still, its most uncontested
masterpiece. Around the Triumph of Bacchus and Ariane (in the center of the vault). This decoration is inspired obviously, in its fitting, of the decoration of the vaults of the Sixtine vault and the frescos of Michel-Angel but also of the vault of the gallery of the Farnésine villa, decorated by Raphaël. The frescos of the vault cause stupor
and admiration at the time of their first public presentation. They since then remain a reference for the Roman artists.
Annibal Carrache rests in the Pantheon of Rome at the sides of Raphaël.
Giovanni Lanfranco (1582-1647) is one of the major representatives of the Roman Baroque art. Born in Terenzo, close to Parma, Giovanni Lanfranco is formed in Bologna at Augustin Carrache then share for Rome to join Annibal Carrache. Placed under the protection of the pope Paul V, he works in particular, as from 1604, with
the decoration of the gallery of the Farnèse palate giving on via Giulia. Of return in its native area in 1609 (with died of Annibal Carrache), it carries out many frescos of the churches of the duchies of Parma and Plaisance, of which the Martyrdom of Octave saint of the baptistry of Parma, and the retable of the Madonna
di Reggio of the Saint-Andrew church in Plaisance, as well as the frescos of the cupola of the vault of Luc saint to the church Santa Maria delle Grazie.
Although its early works are especially the application of the precepts of the classicism enacted by Annibal Carrache, Lanfranco also was very influenced by the style of Corrège (of which its cupola of the dome of Parma). Its skilful prospects, its trompe-l'oeil and its short cuts daring do of it one of the major figures of the Roman
baroque. It had a great influence on the Neapolitan artists Mattia Preti, Francesco Solimena and Luca Giordano and on the French painter François Perrier (1590 -1650) who it formed in its workshop in Rome.
Painter and Italian decorator Guido Reni (1575-1642) are one of the principal representatives of the school bolonaise. Born in Calvenzano, close to Bologna, formed in the workshop of from Antwerp painter Denijs Calvaert, then in Accademia degli Incamminati of Carrache, Guido Reni leaves for Rome with Francesco Albani about 1600. It approaches then Caravage, of which it adopts the technique of theobscure one. The influence of this one is visible in its first tables like the Crucifixion of Pierre saint (1603, the Vatican), but Reni imposes a more personal, elegant and sensual style thereafter, referring more to works of Raphaël. In Rome, he discharges orders of very great prestige, like the frescos of the vault of the Annunciation of the palate Quirinal (1610) and those of Holy-Marie-Major. The Dawn, which it painted with the ceiling of the Rospigliosi casino of Rome between 1613 and 1614, is one of its greater successes. The fresco decorates the ceiling of the casino of Palazzo Pallavicini Rospigliosi, in Rome, it represents an allegory of the Dawn guiding the tank of Apollo. The elegance of the female figures representing the Hours of the day, the subtle plays of light, the delicacy of the colours and the harmony of the composition contribute to the charm of this fresco, works major of Guido Reni.
Pierre de Cortone (1596-1669) is a painter and Italian architect who is with Bernin and Borromini is one of the principal representatives of the Baroque art in Rome at the XVIIe century. Born in Cortone, Pietro Berrettini, said Pietro da Cortona, or in French Pierre de Cortone, painting with Florence at Andrea Commodi studies and is sensitive as of its years of training to the art of Raphaël and Carrache.
The most important works of Cortone, which privileges the mythological and religious subjects, are its frescos misleads the eye of it (frescos of the church Santa Bibiana, 1624). Up to now, the great reaching a maximum compositions were divided into compartments illustrating each one an episode. In its masterpiece, the vast fresco entitled Glory of Barberini (or Triumph of Divine Providence, 1633-1639) decorating the ceiling of the Large Living room of the Barberini palate in Rome, Cortone is freed from this constraint by mixing various scenes in only one and even composition, unified by a bottom representing the sky, thus creating an impression of upswing, profusion and unlimited depth. This effect, which supports the deployment of a multiplicity of prospects, became one of the characteristics of the style baroque. Pierre de Cortone is also the author of decorative works for the palate Pitti (1637) in Florence, for the vault of the nave of Santa Maria in Vallicella (1647) and for the Pamphilj palate of the place Navone (History of Enée, 1651) in Rome.
Juan Carreño de Miranda (1614-1685) is a Spanish painter whose activity proceeded mainly at the court of the king Charles II where he became painter of room as from 1671. Author of portraits and religious works, it in addition deploys a remarkable technicality in the art of the fresco.
He goes very young person to Madrid where he enters the workshop of Pedro of Cuevas, then works with Bartolomé Román, both painters of the school inhabitant of Madrid. About the middle of the XVIIe century, it begins as independent Master by painting religious, prone topics traditional of the time. Introduced at the court by Vélasquez, it shows its talent of skilful fresquist while realizing, in collaboration with Francisco Rizi, of decorations within the palate of the Alcazar of Madrid; its decorative style, marked by the Italian art, is characteristic of the last stage of the baroque.
Its work for the court enables him to discover the royal collections and to study Venetian painting as well as the tables of the Flemish school, in particular those of Rubens. Starting from these new sources, it works out an elegant and dynamic style of a great chromatic richness, which gives an account of its technical control and the ease of the drawing. Although the technique of the fresco is rare among the Spanish painters of the time, Juan Carreño de Miranda uses it in a privileged way for many decorations of churches (vault of the church of San Antonio of los Alemanes of Madrid) and decorations of palate on mythological subjects.
Luca Giordano. (1634-1705) is one of the great figures of the end of the Italian baroque. Born in Naples, Luca Giordano it was called it Fapresto because of its speed of execution. He studies near the Spanish painter Jusepe de Ribera and of the Italian Pierre de Cortone. Its style is inspired at the same time by those of Cortone and Véronèse. Giordano lives and works especially in Naples; it carries out works on order with Florence and, of 1692 to 1700, resides at Madrid, where it works under the protection of Charles II of Spain.
Its work is characterized by harmonious colours, a light painting and a great capacity of invention. Among its most famous frescos those of the cupola of the Corsini vault appear, in Florence of the church of Gerolamini, Naples.
The allegorical fresco the History of the Golden Fleece of Spanish monarchy is a celebration of the reign of Charles II, last sovereign of the dynasty of Habsbourg of Spain. Y is also commemorated the foundation about the Golden Fleece, order of knighthood created in 1430 by the duke of Burgundy Philippe III the Good and established in Spain by Charles Quint. This fresco was painted on the ceiling of one of the large living rooms (old ballroom) of Casón del Buen Retiro, integrated since 1971 into the museum of Prado. This building formerly formed part of the palate of Buen Retiro, which burned in a fire in December 1734.
Peter von Cornelius (1783-1867) is a German painter, member of the group of the nazaréens, representing idealistic painting of history.
Born in Düsseldorf, Cornelius works as from 1809 on the illustration of Faust de Goethe. In 1811, it settles in Rome and joined the nazaréens, group dedicated to the ideals of the art of the Italian Rebirth and to the revival of the fresco. Quickly, the role of Cornelius in the group will be major, and he collaborates between 1816 and 1818 with the frescos of Casa Bartholdy in Rome (Joseph recognized by its brothers). In 1819, prince Louis of Bavaria calls upon him for the decoration of the glyptothèque of Munich, where it also carries out frescos in the church Saint-Louis (last Judgment). Between 1821 and 1861, he is successively director of the academy of Düsseldorf, then of that of Munich, and its influence on the young painters is regarded as very important until the advent of realism. Inspired at its beginnings by Raphaël and Michel-Angel, the style of Cornelius, linear and mannerist, exploits on contrasts of light and the effects of monumentality which made the admiration of Delacroix and Ingres.
Paul Delaroche. (1787-1856) is a French painter, specialized in the painting of history and the portrait.
Hippolyte of the Rock, known as Paul Delaroche, was born in Paris from an expert father in tables. He enters very young person the workshop of the Watelet landscape designer, then works at the sides of the painter of Gros history. Since 1822, it exposes to the Living room where it is not long in being made a flattering reputation of historical painter, in particular with the Death of Elisabeth of England (1827), the Execution of Jeanne Grey (1833), then the Assassination of the duke of Own way (1835, Condé museum, Chantilly). Attending All-Paris, it receives various orders, in particular, in 1837, the decoration of the School of the fine arts of Paris: it carries out there a 27 m length fresco, the Apotheosis of art, its most known work today.
Crowned Wood (1880-1889), it’s a large fresco Symbolist of Pierre Puvis de Chavanne, decorates the large amphitheater of the Sorbonne public corporation of higher education, located at Paris.
Raoul (Dufy, 1877-1953), one of the most famous French colourists of his time realizes for the house of the Electricity of the International exhibition of arts and techniques of 1937 a large decoration, the Fairy electricity.
Belgian painter Antoine Wiertz (1806-1865) is the pupil of Mr. Van Bree and W. - J. Herreyns with the Academy of Antwerp. In 1829, it leaves to Paris. From return in Belgium, it obtains the price of Rome in 1832. From 1834 to 1837, it settles in Rome where it carries out large frescos with the Borghèse villa on the topics of the carnival and the horse-races. The spectacular treatment that it imposes on the religious and mythological subjects makes it famous. He is again success by approaching macabre, and sometimes erotic topics. He is equipped with a powerful imagination, at the point to be considered later, like a precursor of surrealism. He writes also some works on art (Praise of Rubens, the Flemish School of painting). After 1850, the Belgian State builds a workshop in Brussels to him, in order to accommodate its gigantic paintings, it became the Wiertz museum.
Akseli Gallén-Kallela (1865-1931) is a Finnish painter and illustrator, whose name is associated with the revival of the Finnish culture.
Axel Gallén was born in Pori, within the minority of Swedish language, on May 26th, 1865. After its studies of art in Helsinki, he lived in Paris, of 1884 to 1889. In 1890, it made its first voyage in the province of Karelia, whose preserved traditions influenced its adoption of symbolism. In the years 1890, Gallén applied the principles of the art nouveau not only to its painting, but also to its fabrics, its stained glasses and its frescos, as those which it carried out for the central hall of the historical National museum of Helsinki, illustrating scenes resulting from Kalevala, the Finnish mythological epopee. These frescos, designed the made-to-order of tapestries, oppose rather thick contours to vast zones of bright colours.
Dice the origins the fresco is decorative. It perhaps historical, sometimes mythological and often nun. With the Mexican muralism it becomes political and social. The muralism is a Mexican artistic movement resulting from the pictorial tradition pré colombian and which developed after the revolution of 1910.
Its program is to give to art a social base by refusing the traditional painting of rest. The muralism recommends the realization of monumental works intended for the people and centered on Mexican reality, the social struggles, the history and the national identity. The mural, influenced by the last pré colombian and colonial rich person, of traditional and popular inspiration, is seen declared official art of the revolution. As from 1930, the movement reaches an international dimension and extends to other countries from the continent: it is diffused in Argentina, in Peru, in Brazil and this art will be even selected for the decoration of certain public edifices in the United States.
The artists Re discover the technique of the affresco and of the polish and use new materials and processes making it possible to ensure the conservation of the works carried out in outside. Siqueiros uses as pigment a varnish for cars (pyroxyline), colors cement with a gun with air; Riveira, Orozco and Juan O' Gorman also use mosaics of flagstones, while Pablo O' Higgins uses of cooked squares at very high temperature. Since 1922, the Mexican painters did not cease carrying out murals, which attests success and force of this movement.
The Mexican painter Diego Rivera (1886-1957) account among the most famous muralists of his country.
Originating in Guanajuato, Diego Rivera is formed with the Academy of the fine arts of San Carlos in Mexico City. In 1907, it receives a grant which enables him to go to Europe. It remains in Paris and in Madrid, Modigliani meets and is sensitive to the art of Cézanne like to esthetics cubist developed by Picasso and Juan Gris. He also travels to Russia and Italy, where he discovers the frescos of Giotto. As from 1921, it takes an active share in the revival of the mural started by Siqueiros and Orozco, all are supported by the Mexican government. Convinced that art must serve the cause of the people and be to him easily accessible, it endeavors to carry out large frescos and puts its talent at the service of the revolutionary cause by evoking the history of its country on the walls of the public buildings. During years 1920, it carried out many compositions for the minister of education in Mexico City (1922-1929) and for the National school of agriculture of Chapingo (1926).
Will rivet goes to the United States in 1932 and composed several frescos there.
The murals of Will rivet are characterized by a simple, expressive, realistic and vigorous drawing. Impressed of an often virulent social criticism, they openly post the Marxist convictions of the artist, this is why they were in the beginning many polemics, as well in Mexico as in the United States.
Jose Clemente Orozco (1883-1949), is a Mexican painter of tendency expressionist which is regarded as one of the great painters muralists of his country.
It was formed with the Academy of San Carlos, in Mexico City. Become famous thanks to its satirical drawings, it expresses the same political and social concerns since 1922 through its activity of painter muralist. It strongly develops at the sides of Diego Rivera a revolutionary work of character in a style impresses realism and often suggesting a certain violence. Most important of its first works is the series of frescos commemorating the revolt of the peasants and the workers of Mexico City intended for the preparatory National school of the city (1922-1925). Between 1927 and 1934, Orozco works in the United States, where it constructed a whole of murals entitled Dispossessed in New School for Social Research of New York. He also works with the realization of decorations for Pomona College of Claremont, in California, then carries out frescos recalling the history of America for the Library Baker de Dartmouth College. During the Thirties Orozco carries out great murals in Mexico City (palate of the Art schools, 1934) and in Guadalajara (university and palate of the governor, 1936). In the years 1940, it transposes its style in paintings on fabric. At the end of its life, Orozco becomes more expressionist but its topics of predilection are always the sufferings of humanity.
David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974) is him also a painter Mexican muralist as famous as Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco.
Born in Chihuahua, Siqueiros studies at the National school from the Art schools in Mexico City. It carries out its first mural, the Elements, for the preparatory National school of Mexico City in 1923. It took part in the revival of the painting of frescos within the framework of the programme of mural decoration of the public buildings sponsored by the government. Later, it carried out mural frescos in the United States.
Member of the Communist party and activist (it engaged, during the war of Spain, in the republican army), Siqueiros, in his monumental frescos and his paintings, married the revolutionary topics intended to inspire the popular masses. Its daring paintings, with the bright colors, exaltent with lyricism and emotion the heroism of humblest. Condemned in 1962 to eight years of imprisonment to have been the instigator of demonstrations of students in 1960, it was amnestied in 1964. Its most monumental work, the Walk of humanity in Latin America, covers nearly 4.350 m2. It was carried out at its coming out of prison and always decorates Polyforium of Mexico City.
Juan O' Gorman (1905-1982) is architect, Mexican painter and mosaïste. Influenced by the work of Le Corbusier, Juan O' Gorman is the principal one representing international style in Mexico.
O' Gorman is also a muralist and a painter of rest. It carries out many murals of realistic style. The majority represent Mexican historical scenes. In 1937-1938, it creates for the airport of Mexico City a fresco in three panels, entitled the History of the aviation, strongly discussed because of its political contents. In 1939, two of the panels are destroyed (religious Myths and pagan Myths), but the central panel, the Conquest of the air by the man, were safeguarded and preserved in the new airport. Characterized by bright colors and the direction of the details, these paintings reveal two joint influences, that of Diego Rivera and that of the painters of the first Italian Rebirth. O' Gorman also painted oneiric portraits and landscapes, with fantastic architectures.
Marc Chagall (1887-1985) is painter, draftsman, engraver and decorator. Of Russian origin it took as a starting point the Jewish folklore to compose an oneiric work with the strong mystical accents and symbolic systems. It creates many monumental works then, stained glasses, mosaics, tapestries, frescos, in particular for Metropolitan Opera of New York.
In 1964, at the request of Andre Malraux, it carries out the decorations of the ceiling of the Opera of Paris.
Gino Severini (1883-1966) is an Italian painter, one of the founders of futurism.
After a stay in Rome where it bound with Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini goes to Paris where it becomes acquainted with Modigliani. After one period influenced by the neo-impressionism developed by Seurat, it adopts futurism in 1909 and signs, one year later, the Proclamation of futuristic painting. Its works seek then
to seize the action or the movement in whirling compositions of broken lines and forms, as its multiple studies on the dance (Dancer with Pigalle, 1912) testify some. As from 1915, it paints many dead natures of invoice cubist, using the painted joining or words. After the war it returns
with a certain academism, carrying out mosaics and frescos and carrying out several stage sets. From the years 1940, it again directs its research towards a cubism close to the geometric abstraction.
Cândido Portinari (1903-1962) is Brazilian and of Italian origin, born in Brodósqui, it contributes to the development of a contemporary Brazilian art. Portinari studies at the school of the Art schools of Rio de Janeiro. He discovers the technique of the frescos in Europe. Of return to Brazil, it starts to paint the local life. Its style mixes the European abstraction with the Brazilian folklore. It chooses primarily regional topics
that it represented through vibrating colours in giant frescos which it wanted comparable with those of Orozco or of Diego Rivera in Mexico.
Georgia O' Keeffe (1887-1986) is close to the avant-garde and it evolves to the abstraction. Born in Sun Meadow (Wisconsin), Georgia O' Keeffe makes its artistic studies with Art Institute of Chicago then to Art Students League of New York. She teaches art in Texas of 1913 to 1918. In 1916, the photographer Alfred Stieglitz is interested in his abstract drawings and exposed them to the “291”, its picture gallery of New York. O' Keeffe, which settles in New Mexico in 1949, is especially famous for its large-sized tables, approximately representing plane flowers or scenes of the desert. Although it covers its subject in a figurative way, strongly linear quality, the clear colors in thin layers and the compositions with the daring reasons combine aesthetically to form nonfigurative reasons. A certain number of its works have an abstractive effect, in particular its flowers, in particular Black Iris (1926) which releases, by the meticulous profusion of the details, an impression of strangeness. In the years 1960, inspired by a series of voyages by plane, O' Keeffe starts to introduce into its fabrics of the reasons of sky and clouds, such as they are seen since the heights. One of its philosopher's stones is a mural fresco Sky above Clouds (1965) which measures 7,3 m of width.
Rene Derouin (1936) was born in Montreal, after studies in graphic design at the School of the fine arts of Montreal, at 19 years Rene Derouin remains one year in Mexico. He follows there courses of drawing to the university of Mexico, and of painting in Esmeralda School, in Mexico City. By attending the workshops and the exposures of
engraving, it is initiated with this technique. Since the beginning of the Eighties, Derouin shares its time and its activities of creation between Quebec and Mexico. During the Sixties, it is interested especially in engraving and produces a series of works in black and white. In 1968, it continues its formation in Japan. Derouin uses them then
delicate Japanese inks with watercolour in a series of engravings on wood having for topic the winter. Towards end of the year 70, it carries out a return to engraving and creates, of 1979 to 1981, Scandinavian Suite, the first imposing work made up of a series of engravings, of which Nouveau Quebec, where it expresses its attachment with big spaces of Québécois North. At the end of the Eighties Derouin starts to work with the blocks of wood used in engraving and product Équinoxe, a whole of 30 blocks of colour, where the two poles of its double identity are integrated, Canadian and Mexican. From 1989 to 1992, it sets up more a vast project, Migrations, in which it approaches the topic of survival. The unit includes/understands 20.000 ceramics figurines installed on a platform of 50 m made of blocks of wood. The majority of these figurines were abandoned with the wire of the current
from the St. Lawrence by the artist in ritual homage to his dead father and his brother drowned in this water.
In 1946 Henri Matisse (1869-1954) receives an official order for the decoration of the Sainte-Marie vault of the Rosary of Vence, which it completes in 1951. He carries out the stained glasses and the whole of the sacerdotal elements following of the principles of compositions close to the cut out gouaches.
Vallauris is a city of the south-east of France. The shade of Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) planes on the city, a large fresco of 125 m2, the War and Peace, decorates the vault of a former priory.
Karel Appel (1921) is a Dutch painter whose works are characterized by thick pastings, exuberant and dynamic forms, violent one color and often draw their reasons from the world of childhood.
In 1948, it creates, with Corneille, Asger Jorn and Pierre Alechinsky, the Cobra group. Drawing its inspiration in the popular expression, the drawings of children and prehistoric art, Cobra exalte the instinct and is opposed to the rigor intellectual approaches of art, dividing in this direction the designs of the expressionism abstracts American. In 1950, Appel joined Paris, where its humorous and believed reasons, been useful by an impetuous style, as in its Dance in love (1955), are worth the celebrity to him. Call starts to work at the end of the Seventies with works in three dimensions. It creates a succession of vast relieves out of painted wood, then out of plastic, with the variegated chromatics, and polychrome sculptures (Bird and flower, 1968). Its famous Cirque Call (1976-1978) is composed of 32 etchings colours and 15 woodcarvings painted. In 1982, renewing the experiments of collective composition (as the fresco which it carries out in 1976 with the inhabitants of a Peruvian shantytown), it creates with the Allen Ginsberg poet a coloured succession of paintings and visual poems.
Jean-Paul Riopelle (1923-2002) is a painter, sculptor and Canadian engraver.
As from the years 1970, Jean-Paul Riopelle remains regularly in Quebec where it returns definitively 20 years later. In 1992, affected by the death of his partner, the painter American Joan Mitchell whom it met in 1955, it carries out one of its major works, Homage to Rosa Luxemburg, regarded as the artistic will of the painter, this immense fresco of 30 tables painted with the bomb aerosol is exposed today to the museum from Quebec, in Quebec.
In France the town of Tignes was built to replace the old village of the same name, absorbed in 1952 pennies water of the dam Tignes. This arch dam is decorated with a fresco of 12.000 m2. It rises on a height of 180 m.
Today the fresco with fact places at the mural. As worthy heirs to the Mexican muralism the artists of the street art dispute and have fun. They can use their environment, urban furniture, the staircases, the cracks, the small details of the life of the daily newspaper to transport us in a surreality. A universe close to the filled up dream of humor and irony. Accessible by the proportions of works and the subjects represented. Monsters emerge on the walls or with the coloured and variegated faces the frontages decorate with the buildings and sometimes in unexpected or improbable places….