Video : Color Blindness : Simulation.
Where the Fauve Painters colour-blind ?
The question can seem of no importance or commonplace but however….
Here how a normal person perceives the colours, if you are not colour-blind… .
Colour-blind relates to especially 3 colours: red, green and blue.
There exist several types of colour-blind each one perceives, or not, of the different colours. The abnormal Trichromacy do not make any difference between the orange colour and the yellow or between orange and the red. Here vision of a Deuteranopes to the red (Protanopia) and here that of abnormal Tritanopes to the red. These forms it is seen relates to the hot colours. Thus a painter who would have this problem would distinguish the hot colours badly and would use only cold colours.
According to the case, one speaks about Protanopia for the people who confuse the red, of deuteranops for those which confuse the range of the green, and of
Tritanomaly much rarer which them confuses the range of blue. Here the vision of a dichromate to blue is Tritanopes. And that of abnormal Trichromacy to blue. A painter who would badly perceive the green and not blue would use only hot colours.
This anomaly is hereditary it is transmitted by the women but it reaches especially the men. At a colour-blind there exists a more or less complete deficiency of a type of cone (sensory cell of the retina), sensitive to a narrow colour range: blue-purple, green, or yellow-red. It is more particularly the perception of the red or the green which is deteriorated, partially or completely. All the other aspects of the vision of the colour-blind are normal.
By experiment the colour-blind are in general able to differentiate certain colours according to their difference in luminosity with the other colours. Consequently, of many colour-blind are it without the knowledge. Tests were conceived in order to quickly highlight the presence of a colour-blind. There is no possible treatment for this anomaly which can obstruct, to even prohibit, the exercise of certain trades.
This test is used to check the good vision of the colours. The people whose vision is normal see number 57, while those which are colour-blind see number 35. The colour-blind , which is an incapacity to distinguish the red from the green, or sometimes the yellow of blue, is caused by a dysfunction of the retinal cells sensitive to a given colour. This anomaly assigns a person on thirty.
Affections of the retina or optical nerve also lead they to eye troubles and deficiencies partial (dyschromatopsy) or total (colour-blindnesses) of the perception of certain colours.
A painter who perceives only the light of the colours and not the colour itself or very badly can be taken along to declare like made the deer that only the violence of the colours is interesting.
The fauvism sticks only to the orchestration of the colours and surfaces on the painting. Matisse is the leader. Thereafter much gave up this paroxysm to evolve to various styles according to the temperaments. All except Henri Matisse who is at the origin of the movement….
It is Matisse which will push further the consequences from the fauvism in a work almost entirely dedicated to overflowing of the colour.
However by examining the Dance which precisely is made up of the 3 colours which make problems with the colour-blind, blue, green and red it is difficult to imagine that Matisse can have been colour-blind. Especially that during the summer 1904 it spends the summer to Saint-Tropez with Paul Signac and discovers the pointillism a novel method which uses the juxtaposition of pure colours by small points or short features. This process is inaccessible to a colour-blind and Matisse carries out Luxury , Calm and Pleasure in this manner.
During the summer 1905, Matisse and Derain work together in Collioure in a gilded light which erases the shades. They use complementary colours applied by broad and energetic keys, seeking an equivalent of the light and not its made exact. Quickly, the separate key is transformed into broad flat tints and surfaces little modulated but rich in matter. The colour, arbitrary, gives up any report of imitation with the tone local and translated all the aspects of a reason, including the shades, by a range of let us tons pure whose bringing together generates the light.
André Derain is characterized by a great audacity in employment from the colour, which it spreads out in broad segmented keys; the forms are stylized, deformed and the process of composition rests on original, visible prospects in its sights of London and its landscapes. In 1907, Derain frequent Braque and Picasso, moves away from the fauvism and is especially influenced by the cubism. No moment one can affirm that Derain distinguishes the colours badly.
It is the same for his friend Maurice de Vlaminck who uses same chromatic violence, replacing the drawing by the application of pure tonality. Vlaminck represents especially landscapes and uses contrast between hot colours and cold what a colour-blind would have had of the evil to carry out.
Albert Marquet uses the violent colours of the Fauves and exposes with them to the Living room of autumn of 1905 but he dissociates this movement very quickly. He devotes himself almost exclusively to the landscapes. The lines are precise and concise graphics. The pallet of Marquet evolves little, its attitude consisting in remaining faithful to the essence of its observation and to just returned emotion. One quite simply classifies Raoul Dufy among the Fauve painters because it is difficult to classify it elsewhere. Dufy adopts the Fauve-coloured manner, characterized by the use of violent colours, and its direction of the feature, spontaneous and vigorous adds to it. Little by little, and particularly in its watercolours, its work becomes lighter, more luminous and very rhythmical.
A friend of Dufy, Emile Othon Friesz, Fauve painter also, has a key close to Dufy.
To the Norman and Breton landscapes, he added from 1908 those of Provence, which concern references to Cezanne. As it uses multiple hot and cold colours in its landscapes it does not seem that it can have problem of perception of the colours. A painter who would have a problem of perception of the colours would paint few landscapes and would limit himself especially to the portraits in colours either cold or hot. It is the case of the French Fauve painter of origin Dutchmen Kees Van Dongen.
There is not or few landscapes in its work or then they are in dark colours, the portraits use harmonies between cold colours especially or hot colours but seldom of contrasts heat and cold. We can affirm with well little chance to mislead us that Kees Van Dongen was colour-blind. The colours which it uses are those of abnormal Trichromate to the red.
But Van Dongen did not need to perceive the colours because in their setting in scene of the power and the money, its portraits society men let see acuity, and sometimes even the cruelty of its glance of moralist. Its same portraits influenced the German expressionnism.
In Le Havre Georges Braque meeting Othon Friesz and Raoul Dufy at the school of the fine arts of the city, During the winter 1905-1906, and under the influence of the work of Henri Matisse, it starts to paint with the manner of the Fauve painters , while structuring by tons sharp a still impressionist set of themes: Landscape in l’Estaque (1906).
The year 1907 is capital for Braque. He discovers Cezanne, whose retrospective of works has place to the Living room of autumn, Picasso, and the primitive arts. The cubist adventure starts…
Georges Henri Rouault is a special case. Born in Paris, it enters in training as of the 14 years age in a glass Master, then studies painting at Gustave Moreau. In 1905, it exposes with the Fauve painters to the living room of Independent, while not adhering to the movement.
The topics which it chooses, the passion of Christ, judges corrupted or prostitutes, portraits of kings or clowns sad, are attached to its deep spiritualism. Rouault is the major figure of the Christian art at the 20th century.
Georges Rouault remained, his life during, a recluse: “One is born and one dies solitary without to have wanted sought it nor ” and independent, following as an asceticism the way which it had set : to continue its great artistic search in withdrawal of the modes and the gesticulations of the world. In that, its attitude is a lesson of life and confers a moral and metaphysical dimension on the figure of the creator.
“ If there had been beautiful stained glasses, like formerly with the Middle Ages,
I would perhaps not have become painter ”. Georges Henri Rouault.
Only Van Dongen was colour-blind.