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Hudson River School Analysis : 

Romanticism: To the Literature at the Painting, to the Old world at the New world....


Thomas Cole. The Titan's Goblet.
(1833).

Frederic Edwin Church. The River of Light. (1833).

Thomas Cole. Home in the Woods. (1847).


Frederic Edwin Church. Aurora Borealis. (1865).

Tomas Cole. Falls of the Catskill. (1826).

Frederic Edwin Church. Morning in The Tropic. (1858).


Martin Johnson Heade.  Cattleya Orchid and 3 Brazilian Hummingbirds. (1871).


Frédéric Edwin Church. A Country Home. (1854). 

Martin Johnson Heade.  Orchids and Hummingbird. (1875). 


Birds and flowers of Martin Johnson Heade

Martin Johnson Heade.  
Hummingbirds and Flowers of Passion.


Still Lifes of Martin Johnson Heade

Martin Johnson Heade. 
The Great Florida Marsh. (1886).
 
Landscapes of Martin Johnson Heade Martin Johnson Heade. 
  The Great Florida Sunset. (1887).
 


Thomas Cole and the Hudson River School’s painters.

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Thomas Cole and the Hudson River School’s painters.

The painter Washington Allston (1779 -1843) is the first to make known the romanticism in the United States in his landscapes. However it is Thomas Cole (1801 - 1848) who will give him all his notoriety and will be at the origin of a movement: Hudson To rivet School which will become much extensive and of importance and to influence all American Northern art.
Born in the United Kingdom Thomas Cole is painter and engraver. In 1823 it makes studies with the academy from the Art schools in Philadelphia, it also undertakes to represent landscapes. After being themselves installed in New York and having exposed its paintings it obtains a sharp success. The landscapes of Cole are allegorical, imposing by the proportions, and romantic.
During a stay in Europe he discovers Poussin, Le Lorrain, Constable and Turner which will influence its work. Poussin and Le Lorrain will lead it to modify its composition, Constable illustrates the importance which it is necessary to give to the sky in the landscapes, the watercolours of Turner will enable him to clear up its pallet.
The most known paintings of Thomas Cole are : The Oxbow (1836) and In The Catskills. The landscapes and the cascades of Catskill (in the state of New York) were often represented by Cole, this one settles there in 1836. The Catskill mountains north of New York and in the south of Albany are an eroded plate and are located west of Hudson River. The Hudson river, located in the east of the State of New York takes its source in the mounts Adirondacks and after a course of north towards the south of 492 km it is thrown in the Atlantic Ocean in the Upper bay in New York.
One can compare to the work of Thomas Cole to that of the German romantic painters like Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840) the Walker with the top as of Brumes, (1818) the Baltic under the light of the moon, 1824, Friedrich seeks to represent the loneliness of the man in comparison of the vastness of nature. Karl Blechen (1798 - 1840), the Construction of the Bridge of the Devil (1833), puts the question of the place of the man in the world.
The paintings of Thomas Cole are often allegories, such as for example the Ages of the Life, Childhood (1842), Youth (1842). In this last work Cole uses the fantastic one while letting appear a palate in the sky. The characteristic of Cole is to make use of fantastic to give a spiritual dimension to these paintings. In the Goblet of the Titans (1833) the proportions are gigantic. Sailing ships sail in the cut and a seaside resort is located under the foot. Thomas Cole research the ideal landscape as in the Dream of the Architect (1840), the proportions of the landscapes mean moral size and are a divine demonstration. The Course of the Empire (1836), is 5 large allegorical paintings on the evolution of humanity, they are inspired by the work of the count of Volney, the Ruins, or Meditations on the revolutions of the empires (1791). The originality of the paintings of Cole is to show opened landscapes, the glance is attracted with far and is guided by the elements of the landscape. Later the work of Thomas Cole evolves to religious painting, The Cross (1845), however its landscapes as the House in Wood (1848) remain remarkable compositions, very balanced, with the extremely luminous cold colors. The notoriety of Thomas Cole attracts a group of painters landscape designers as from 1835. They paint the wild landscapes of the American east and of course the banks of Hudson river. This movement tightened baptized Hudson River School then and it will become a powerful and original pictorial movement. The successor and the pupil of Thomas Cole is Frederic Edwin Church (1826 - 1900). Church uses a perfect technique to make the effects atmospheric of landscapes of East America but also polar regions, of the Andes, in Ecuador, he also likes to represent luminous landscapes with the hot colors and changing. Church opens the way with the American luminism not to confuse with the Belgian movement of the same name very influenced by French impressionism. 
Luminism is a kind of landscicapes carried out between 1850 and 1870 with light effects and an air prospect, the lines and the features are not visible. The landscapes American luminists express peace with often calm water which reflects misty sky. Many Hudson River School painter’s followed this way. Robert Salmon (1775 – 1845) , Robert Duncanson, Fitz Henry Lane (1804 – 1865), John Frederick Kenset (1816 – 1872), James A. Suydam ( 1819 – 1865), Martin Johnson Heade (1819 – 1904), Sanford Robinson Gifford (1823 – 1880), Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823 – 1900), David Johnson (1827 – 1908), Albert Bierstadt (1830 – 1902), Edmund Darch Lewis (1835 – 1910) , Asher Brown Durand (1796 – 1886) . After the death of Thomas Cole it is Asher Brown Durand (1796 - 1886) who takes the head of the movement. The landscapes of Durand are not always open it represents also the details. One of its pupils is Samuel Colman (1832 - 1920) who works in the tradition of Hudson river school. Painter rather prolific Albert Bierstatdt (1830-1902) represents the landscapes of the American West, but also of the landscapes of Switzerland, with Thomas Moran (1837 - 1926), Thomas Hill (1829 - 1908) and William Keith (1838 - 1911) it is at the origin of the creation of the park of Yellowstone. These painters are called the painters of the school of the Rocky Mountains. The Hudson River School painter’s represent Nature as a proof of the existence of god and his benevolence. For them the wild landscapes of the USA are similar to the Garden of Eden. It is advisable however to distinguish Martin Johnson Heade (1819 - 1904) who, if he represented landscapes in the style Hudson River School, also represented the details and of splendid nature died with orchises, butterflies and birds of the tropics.