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Pop Art. (1956).
Pop Art is a major movement of the contemporary art. It occurs in England where a group of artist of Institute of Contemporary Art of London organizes in 1956 an exposure entitled : This is tomorrow with a picture of Eduardo Paolozzi, I Was has Rich Man' S Plaything. (1947), (a publicity for Coca-Cola appears there already) which evokes “pop”, English word which indicates a sharp snap of explosion. It is this word which gives its name to this new tendency. The majority of criticisms however think that it is rather about popular art or “popular art”. The second work historically is: Just What is it that Makes Today' S Home so Different, so Appealing? of Richard Hamilton.
In the USA in 1961 an exposure to the Museum of Modern Art reveals the first American artists of Pop Article But the American and English school are different and they will evolve separately during the Sixties.
The initial dash is given by Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns; the first with its assemblies carried out starting from familiar objects like pillows, beds, tires, bottles or newspapers, the second with a series of tables representing of the alphabets, the figures, the American flags and the targets.
The artists of Pop Art are opposed to a painting which would translate the emotions of the individual and his subjectivity.
Their will is to make anti-art and they put in scene the consumer society through daily and ordinary objects. They screen publicity and the world of media, they take as a starting point the cartoon, reproduce cars, limp of preserve, drinks, the electronic devices, the pages of newspapers, the photographs of known people or banknotes.
Isolated or gone up in joinings or assemblies the objects scoff at the spectator, divert it by their size, or a detail anachronistic and surprising.
By doing this they cause a certain distance and a feeling of anonymity which are so characteristic of the town culture. Social criticism or the satire is often present.
With Richard Hamilton, Eduardo Paolozzi, Peter Blake, David Hockney and Allen Jones the British also produce a finer, more allusive, more ambiguous art, with a poetic diversion of the objects and signs or rather unexpected associations. The Americans are interested more in the ordinary and daily object, in all its banality and even manage to introduce elements of poetic reflection on Américan way of life. The most known artists are Robert Rauschenberg, Roy Lichtenstein and her work on the comic strip, Jasper Johns and James Rosenquist. The leader of the movement is Andy Warhol (1928-1987), with his famous serigraphies of Marylin Monroe or of limp of soup Campbell. For Andy Warhol, the symbolic range of these images of the daily newspaper, pertaining to the popular culture American and being able to be produced in series by a mechanical process, is to highlight the inflationary character of the picture.
The materials resulting from modern industry, like the plastic, the polyurethane, acrylic painting or the mosaic are also used. Pop Art strongly calls into question the general status of the picture but also the place reserved for the artistic image within a widened visual culture all this while being devoted to diversions of the function of the pictures.