Romanticism: To the Literature at the Painting, 
to the Old world at the New world....


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Hudson River School Analysis : 

Thomas Cole. The Titan's Goblet.

Frederic Edwin Church. The River of Light. (1833).

Thomas Cole. Home in the Woods. (1847).

Frederic Edwin Church. Aurora Borealis. (1865).

Tomas Cole. Falls of the Catskill. (1826).

Frederic Edwin Church. Morning in The Tropic. (1858).

Martin Johnson Heade.  Cattleya Orchid and 3 Brazilian Hummingbirds. (1871).

Frédéric Edwin Church. A Country Home. (1854). 

Martin Johnson Heade.  Orchids and Hummingbird. (1875). 

Birds and flowers of Martin Johnson Heade

Martin Johnson Heade.  
Hummingbirds and Flowers of Passion.

Still Lifes of Martin Johnson Heade

Martin Johnson Heade. 
The Great Florida Marsh. (1886).
Landscapes of Martin Johnson Heade Martin Johnson Heade. 
  The Great Florida Sunset. (1887).

Romanticism: To the Literature at the Painting, 
to the Old world at the New world....

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Romanticism: To the Literature at the Painting, to the Old world at the New world....

As a literary current, the romanticism knows these first demonstrations in Germany and England, at the end of the 18th century. It also appears in France and Italy, but also in Spain, in Portugal and in the Scandinavian countries during first decades of the 19th century. In painting this artistic current is originating in Germany (about 1800), poetic works of Tieck the influence much, it preaches a return to the Middle Ages and a union between art and religion. It comes especially "from Nazaréens", a community of painters German living in Rome and who treat in their works of the old and Germanic topics. Philipp Otto Runge and Caspar David Friedrich evoke by their landscapes the union between the man and nature. Objectives and topics similar to the German Romanticism are treated in England by the pre-raphaelite and Rossetti. The French Romanticism in Painting is lyric it is based on the various Revolutions, facts, and historical painting, even exotic with Delacroix. Concerning the Landscape it is the school of Barbizon and Corot which are most representative of the French Romantic landscape.The literary Romanticism is a current of sensitivity and thought which influenced the art and the culture of all Europe. The romanticism marked literary creation, that it is in Germany (Novalis, Wackenroder, Ludwig Tieck, Heinrich von Kleist), in England (William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron (1788-1824), Percy Bysshe Shelley, John Keats), in France (Stendhal, Alphonse de Lamartine, Alfred de Vigny, Victor Hugo, Alfred de Musset, Théophile Gautier) or in Italy (Alessandro Manzoni, Giacomo Leopardi). Some writers of the end of the XVIIIe century, William Blake, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), and the writers German among whom Goethe (Sufferings of the Young Werther 1774) and Schiller (the Brigands 1781) are regarded as precursors of the romanticism, so to speak of " preromantic ". There is in works of Rousseau as in those of Étienne of Senancour, the first expressions of one of the most significant aspects of the romanticism : the feeling of nature, founded on the resemblance enters the interior landscape of the heart and the external landscape. There is already, also, in Rene or in the Memories of in addition to-fall from Chateaubriant, a painting of this " harm of living " or this " harm of the century " which will become the privileged topic of romantic poetry at Vigny or Musset. Even if there remains possible to release a certain number of characteristics common to the romanticisms of the various countries of Europe, each one does not remain about it less very specific, because of the particular sociological conditions under which they develop. Thus the English, German and French Romanticisms are different. As much in Painting that in Literature. There are nevertheless certain conducting wire which we will try to highlight in two arts. And especially we will show how this artistic movement crossed the ocean to appear in the new world especially in the painters of the Hudson River School and Thomas Cole. 
German Romanticism. 
There are 3 periods ago in the German romanticism, after the preromantic wave represented in particular by Herder, Goethe and Schiller. The first most known period, and most significant, is known as " romanticism of Iéna " (1797-1801); it is organized around the brothers Schlegel, August Wilhelm von Schlegel, Friedrich von Schlegel and of the Athenäum review. The second is that of the " romanticism of Heidelberg " (1804-1809), with Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano (the magic Horn of the child, 1806-1808). But Clemens Brentano is one of the representatives of the third period, known as of the " late romanticism ". The romanticism of Iéna is before a whole project, a program traced for the literature. It is initially an assertion of the poetry, conceived like an exploration of the territories of imagination. Novalis speaks, indeed, to form a poetic world around oneself to live in poetry, to produce outside starting from infinity of the interior, and to dream the world in totality of its aspects. German Romantic as a whole thinks that external nature is closely related the interior nature of the Man. The romantic project does not consist in covering with a poetic veil a reality stripped of poetry, but with " to romanticism " the world, all to transform into poetry by means of a poetry of a higher kind. The novel, definite as the privileged form of romantic art, is designed, in its being, like reflexion and research. It is illustrated by Lucinde (1799) of Friedrich von Schlegel, Godwi or the Statue of the mother (1801) of Clemens Brentano, or Florentins by Dorothea Schlegel. The romantic heart is opened with the distance, the unknown, strange and the supernatural one. Tieck, in its Tales, wants to show that the supernatural world, fairies and " the Elves ", is very close to the world which is familiar for us. Fair Eckbert, the Knight Bore-Blue, the Seven Women of Bore-Blue thus use elements which come from the popular legends. Like poetry and philosophy, German romantic painting draws its sources in the idea of has natural resulting from has divine demonstration. It gives small channel to has school of painting of landscapes symbolic systems, At the origin of which the mystical and allegorical painting of Philipp Otto Runge appear. The principal representative of this current, considered also have the German romantic great painter, is Caspar David Friedrich, whose landscapes oscillate between has subtle mystical feeling and year impression of melancholy, of loneliness, even of alienation. Its romantic pessimism is expressed most directly in the Shipwreck of the hope or the Sea of ice (1823), the wreck of a ship shipwrecked man, hardly visible on a pyramid of ice, a such monument raised with the triumph of nature on the human aspirations appears. In the Hours of the day, regarded as its masterpiece, Philipp Otto Runge seeks to depict the harmonious relations which develop between the Man and nature, recurring topic since 1803.
The nazareens are a group of artists who try to find the style and the spirit of the medieval religious art, they open another way with the German romanticism. Their principal representative is Friedrich Overbeck. The nazareens are drank has true community : it is necessary to quote, Franz Pforr, Peter Cornelius, Carl Philip Fohr, Ferdinand Olivier, Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld. One edge compares the nazareens with the British pre-raphaelites which in years 1850 take have has starting not similar topics. Among the artists of the German romantic tradition still appears the Austrian Moritz von Schwind (1804 - 1871), who borrows his topics from the mythology and the Germanic fairy bruise, have Ludvwig Richter they illustrate many texts of writers.
English Romanticism. 
It is considered that the English romanticism occurs in the ten last years of the 18eme century, in particular with works of James Thomson (1700-1748) (Seasons, 1726-1730), of Edwards Young (1683-1765), (Nights, 1742-1745) and especially those of William Blake. Painter, engraver, and illustrator his poems precede the romanticism, it was regarded have long time as pre-romantic, but its work, in which one perceives reminiscences of Spenser, of Milton and of Shakespeare, is in advance and exceeds the romanticism. Visionary, in the search of a truth beyond sensitive, reader of Swedenborg, naturalist and philosopher Swedish, it puts in scene mystical visions in worms interfered prose (prophetic Books). Blake, like all the poets of his generation, is deeply moved by the French revolution : there is in the Songs of innocence (1789) and the Songs of experiment (1794) the expression of a social thought (" the Small Chimney sweeper "). One finds this aspect in works of the generation following, to be strictly accurate romantic, in particular those of Wordsworth and Coleridge. In Wordsworth, the ballades concern the dramatic monologue, since the narration comes from a humble character, whose poet borrows the voice. Indeed, Blake, Wordsworth and Coleridge, like later Hugo, call on the poor wretches and the unhappy one. This social thought becomes thought of the revolt at Shelley, in his great poems narratifs and revolutionists, like the Queen Mab (1813), the Revolt of Islam (1818) and in its lyric drama celebrating the revolt of Titan Promethee against Jupiter (Promethee delivered, 1820).
The English romanticism maintains the close relationship with the present and the misery of the poor, it calls its wishes a future of social justice, but it is not very strongly influenced less of it by the nostalgia of a medieval past, whose painting characterizes besides almost all the romantic production of the time. Gothic novels of Ann Radcliffe (1764-1823), (the Italian, 1797; Mysteries of Udolphe, 1794), those of Horace Walpole (1717-1797), (the Castle of Otranto, 1764) and historical novels of Walter Scott (1771-1832), (Waverley, 1814; Ivanhoe, 1819) illustrate perfectly this taste for the Middle Ages, the strange one and the mystery. What the English romanticism divides at the most point with the European romanticism, it is the feeling of a similarity between nature and it me, as well as the assertion of an identity between the beauty of the nature and that of the work of art. It is that to which testify for example Tintern Abbey and Description of the landscape of the lakes (1810 - 1822) of Wordsworth, the Ode on a Greek ballot box, the Ode with a nightingale and the Ode with the autumn (1820) of Keats, or the Ode with the wind of west (1819) of Shelley. In painting, a little as in Germany, the landscapes where abound the emotions and metaphysical dimension become the principal mode of expression. The British painters innovate however more on the stylistic and technical level. The landscapes of Samuel Palmer (1805 -1881), are characterized thus by a kind of innocent simplicity, with which is associated a religious feeling visionary, derived from Blake. John Constable, one of the first painters to be worked in the open air, moves away however from the feeling of a wild nature to the profit of a fresh vision and calms, returned by the use of luminous colors and a daring key. Most radical of all the English romantic painters is Joseph Mallord William Turner. It is interested mainly in its works in the atmospheric effects of the light and the color, mixing clouds, fog, snow and sea in a swirl in which all the elements dissolve. On their side Pre-raphaelites celebrate the beauty. Waterhouse as Rossetti invent a idealized female image. The model is distinguished, dreamer and romantic. They are icons of " fatal beauty " of a beauty unreal, cold, fixed, almost immaterial. The inspiration of these painters is generally an arts person. For example Ophelia, heroin tragic and romantic of the tragedy of Shakespeare Hamlet, is the subject of many paintings.
French Romanticism.
Rousseau with Julie or the News Héloïse (1761) and the Daydreams of the solitary walker (1778), Mrs. de Staël with Delphine (1802) and Corinne or Italy (1807), Chateaubriant with Atala (1801) and Rene (1802-1805), Senancour with Oberman (1804), are the indicator boards of the romanticism in France. This label of precursors is appropriate to them well, indeed, if one takes into account the characteristics of the French romanticism like school. But lyricism melancholic person, the feeling of an identity between being interior for it and nature, the successive dashes of exaltation and despair, the weariness of the life of Chateaubriant in Rene, who defines the romantic heart, are quite as present at Rousseau as at Lamartine or Musset. Compared to the German romanticism or English the romanticism is late in France, undoubtedly because of the force of Classicism in France and to successes of the tragedies of Racine (1639-1699). In front of the immobilism of the literary institutions the young romantic authors have problems to assert themselves. However on the level of the set of themes, the romantic poets usually use myths of Greek or Roman Antiquity. Those refer to nature and are a means of expressing the feeling of a secret identity between nature created and the human heart: it is the famous topic of the landscape like reflection of the heart, or nature like mirror of the heart. Poetry, for the romantic ones is a tool privileged to reveal the hidden bonds which organize the Universe. In fact the poetic Meditations (1820) of Lamartine are regarded as the birth certificate of romantic lyricism in France. French romantic poetry, right from the start, has as a master word the emotion. Marking the emergence of the individual, it proposes the expression, with the first nobody, of the feelings and the states of heart of the poet. The Confession of a child of the century (1836) and the Nights (1835-1837), of Musset, comb also the dislike of the existence and the torments of a heart which does not have in this world what it wishes. As for Vigny, it describes in Stello (1832), then in Chatterton (1835), which it calls " road of disillusion", through the life of individuals inapt to find their place in the Society. However, one should not forget that this poetry is a also revolutionist and committed, in particular that of Victor Hugo with the Punishments (1853) and of Lamartine with his poetic Meditation (1839). The romantic laments are not only narcissistic, and cannot all be regarded as a fold on concerns of a private nature. As of the foreword of his part Cromwell (1827), Victor Hugo asserts himself like the theorist of the romantic drama. He recommends the mixture of the kinds and the registers of language, the abandonment of the rule of the three units (action, place, time). He illustrates itself this new kind, the romantic drama, with Hernani, of which the first, in February 1830, gives place to a memorable scandal. The French romanticism is particularly varied and vigorous in its demonstrations, it incarne in painting, the music, the history, the policy, literary criticism, the theatre, poetry, the novel, the test, the memories… Many authors and artists not claiming romanticism however is so deeply influenced by him that they are traditionally associated to him in the French cultural history.
In painting the romanticism is expressed in a different way, the paintings are bloody and militant, they refer to the social fights and the noblest aspirations of the people. Delacroix in Freedom Guiding the People (1830) takes as a starting point the popular rising of July 1830 of which he is the witness to carry out a triangular composition which will become a universal symbol, that of the people in anger according to Marianne towards freedom. Géricault in the Raft of the Jellyfish (1819) uses a tragic news. The royal frigate, the Jellyfish, part of Rochefort to colonize Senegal, enlise off the coasts of Africa on July 2, 1816. To reduce the ship one places people of more modest condition in a raft and when the boat floats again and sets out again, somebody cuts the cord connecting the ship to the raft. 149 people spend 12 days piled up on an emergency raft, without food, until the boat Argus, launched with their research, finds them and collects about fifteen survivors. The political character of work is, in addition, undeniable. The lawsuit of the commander who opens little after the rescue, will become, indeed, the lawsuit of monarchy and will rejoin the liberal opposition, and Géricault, which chooses to register a black character at the top of the pyramid. With the Scenes of the massacres of Scio (1824), Delacroix represents the human suffering and the inexorability of the destiny but it refers to the real events of the island of Scio where 20 000 Greeks fights about it for their independence are killed by the Turks. Violence and the erotism dominate in the Death of Sardanapale (1827) of Delacroix. The artist borrows his subject from the British literature and Lord Byron, in front of his enemies, the king assyrien Sardanapale makes carry out his favorite then commits suicide. 
Characterized by its vision baroque, the harmony between the hot colors and the luxuriance of the yellows, orange and the reds, theatrical and tumultuous, full with force and passion, this large scene of massacre is the union between pleasure and death in the legendary East near well on Byron and of the Victor Hugo to the Eastern ones. However Delacroix remains strict with regard to the composition. By the use of the color, Delacroix represents an effect of pure energy and emotion comparable with that which the music gets. This swirl of color on the downward diagonal shocks criticisms of the time but this scene remains the most authentic romantic painting of Delacroix. With regard to the landscape the romanticism is expressed especially at Camille Corot. (1796 - 1875). More than one landscape designer Camille Corot is a creator of atmospheres, the Valley (1855), the Lake (1869), the Marsh (1870), the Strong gale… It is rare that Corot combs a landscape without trees, and of the trees preferably curved, agitated and tormented which show the presence of the wind. In its work the modulation of the tone harmonious and is very granted, it manages to create an exquisite atmosphere which belongs only to him, inimitable. The Old one in the New world. In painting the romanticism did not cross the Atlantic by chance, it does it via Thomas Cole. 
Thomas Cole is has painter and engraver. In 1823 it makes studies with the Academy of Beautiful - Arts in Philadelphia and represents the landscapes of North East of the United States, especially in the neighbourhood of the Hudson river. During his stay in Europe it discovers Poussin, the Lorrain, Constable and Turner which will influence its work. The landscapes and the cascades of Catskill (in the state of New York) were often represented by Cole, this one settles there in 1836. The landscapes of Cole are allegorical, imposing by the proportions, and romantic. Thomas Cole use fantastic to give spiritual and allegorical dimension to his paintings. Cole is followed by other artists who form a group of painters landscape designers since 1835. This movement will be baptized Hudson River School. The successor and the pupil of Thomas Cole is Frederic Edwin Church (1826 - 1900). Church uses a perfect technique to make the effects atmospheric of the landscapes of the East American but also of the polar areas, of the Andes, tropics, he likes to represent luminous landscapes with hots colors and moving.. For the painters of the Hudson River School the vastness and the size of nature are the expression of divine and of the creator. 
The painters landscape designers of the Hudson River School are the most beautiful success of the Romanticism on the Northern American continent. However the USA have them also their Delacroix and their historical and militant painting like Freedom Guiding the People in France. In 1851 Emmanuel Leutze represents George Washington Crossing the Delaware. This painting refers to the war of independence. In the night from the 25 to December 26, 1776 George Washington crosses the river Delaware, it is an attack surprised against the English troops in Trenton in the New Jersey, it crushes 1 200 soldiers and makes more than 900 prisoners. January 3, 1777, Washington still strikes puts of them in rout 3 British regiments during the battle of Princeton.