History of the Women in Painting or the Woman Artists.
The women are not less gifted than the men in painting, they are to it as much. But the known woman artists of the general public are rare. One quotes sometimes Vigée Lebrun, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt. However at all the times of multiple female talents were there.
One simply confined them in kinds known as: “ minor ”: Still Life…During a long time religious painting and the painting of history were prohibited to them. The royal academies of painting or art refused the women, in France after the revolution the class of the Art schools, which replaced the royal Academy within the Institute of France, does not admit the women….In the art history there is not of famous female painter, impossible, they were ignored. The women never had the equality nor the parity, nowhere and even less in Art.
The women recognize the colors with more precision than the men because it is the X chromosome which is carrying the cones, necessary to the vision of the colors and they have 2 of them. It is that the women have much more cones and thus of sensors of colors that the men. It is what explains mainly why they are much more sensitive than the men to the nuances of colors. It is that they can detect of course them and also to reproduce them. When one speaks in painting about large colourists one quotes Titien, Dufy, Matisse but seldom a woman…
The talent of the women for pictorial art is not yesterday it starts with
Lavinia Fontana (1552-1614) it is the girl of an artist, Prospero Fontana. She carries out especially portraits but also tables approaching of the religious and mythological topics, kind reserved to the men at the time. It is the first woman to make painting her trade and to practice are art outside the convents.
Fede Galizia (1578 - 1630) studies in the workshop of his/her father. At sixteen years it is already known for its portraits. She carries out also several biblical paintings.
Artemisia Gentileschi (1593 - 1652) in the line of Caravage carries out realistic and dramatic paintings with light-obscure the very constant ones. At 17 years it carries out Suzanne and the old men (1610), its talents of colourist and for the composition of works are indisputable.
Louise Moillon (1610 - 1696) is an artist baroque who carries out splendid Still Life , her compositions are clear, sober and neat.
Mary Beale (1633-1699) carries out especially portraits to provide for the needs for his family. Rachel Ruysch (1664-1750) is most known of the two sisters, it carries out remarkable floral compositions. Its gifts for the color and the composition burst in its Still Life.
In the same register her sister Anna Ruysch (1666-1741), in hotter colors, expresses also much talent. Rosalba Carriera (1675-1757) is portraitist and miniaturist, after 1703 it devotes himself to the pastel. Its portraits have a great softness and much of elegance. It is especially the author of a series of female portraits having for topic the 4 seasons. Its portraits of children are of a great realism and show its extreme sensitivity.
Angelica Kauffmann (1741 - 1807) is the girl of the Swiss painter Joseph Johan Kauffmann, very quickly it is pointed out by its portraits with the pastel. With her father it decorates the church with Schwarzenberg. She travels to Italy where she studies and copies works of the large Masters. Its style is at semi way between the rococo and the classicism, its palette is rich, clear and hot.
Anne Vallayer-Coster (1744 - 1818) is one of the rare women to be allowed with the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture on July 28th, 1770. The attributes of arts, is a still life in tribute to the institution of which she wishes to become member. She practices with talent the art of the Still life, fruits and flower are represented in an elegant style and the colors are gleaming. Other paintings are even, by their subject, of true scarcities.
Adélaïde Labille-Guiard (1749 - 1803) is a great portraitist. Its style is realistic and merry. Especially its portraits are never insipid and the models are gracious. She could have been recognized thanks to the revolution but as from 1789 the class of the Art schools, which from now on replaces the royal Academy within the Institute of France, does not admit the women…. Louise-Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun (1755 - 1842), great portraitist it is very appreciated by the nobility and the court in 1779 it is named official painter of the queen Marie Antoinette. She takes as a starting point Rubens and directs herself towards the traditional style of classical portrait of David. Its Self-portraits are admirable.
Marie-Gabrielle Capet (1761 - 1818) is to be retained for her portraits and her miniatures. Its Self-portrait with the pallet of 1783 or it fixes the spectator in an amused way is of a large smoothness.
Marguerite Gerard (1761 - 1837) can hardly read and to write but she learns how to draw, paint and engrave. She carries out intimist scenes with an exceptional direction of the details. Often pets are near their Masters. It has a precise key and a marked direction of the color. Its talents of portraitist are indisputable.
Sophie Rude (1797 - 1867) was the pupil of David, it paints has the manner of its Master and also carries out copies according to its compositions. It is, the author of the Portrait of Wolf says Bernard who was allotted a long time to David. It produces primarily portraits of which some are remarkable and of the historical paintings.
Rosa Bonheur (1822 -1899) is originating in Bordeaux, his work, attached to the realistic movement, is an evocation of the rural life of France.
It becomes famous thanks to its paintings describing the agricultural work and the life in the campaigns. Its first large paintings entitled Nevers-native Tilling (1848), obtains a price with the Salon of 1849 and is then acquired by the French government. Then in 1855 it receives one second gold medal with the Living room for Haymaking in Auvergne. Rosa Bonheur, also great painter animalist, is a great success with two of his fabrics, the Market with the Horses (1853-1855) and the Weaning of the Calves (1887). The work of Rosa Bonheur is famous in all Europe like in the United States. With the death of her father, in 1849, it takes the direction of its school of Article It also receives the governmental authorization to be disguised as a man in order to be able to observe the animals in the fairs and on the markets. In 1894, it is the first woman with being high with the dignity of Knight Grand Cross of the Legion of honor.
Berthe Morisot (1841 - 1895). Niece of Fragonard it becomes the pupil of Corot in 1862 and becomes acquainted with Daubigny and Daumier before meeting Manet into 1868 which teaches the technique of the pastel to him. She approaches the impressionists and exposes with the group of which she becomes an active member.
She is the only woman artist to be exposed with the impressionists in 1874. The Cradle is one of the rare tables to be appreciated by the critic with this impressionist exposure. She likes the scenes intimist, family, she can play of the iridescent white in a remarkable way and the quality of some of its color gradations is surprising. It is gifted for the portrait and its models are seldom static.
Mary Cassatt (1843 - 1926) is the American artist most important of the 19th century. It is allowed to expose to the Salon of 1872 and 1874 when it discovers the painting of the impressionists. When in 1877 its paintings are refused she joins the impressionist movement. During these years, it will establish a close artistic cooperation with Edgar Degas. Its works are marked by a research of asymmetry, thus its Walk in the boat (1893), maternities, the such Mirror (1900) evoke intimate feelings in familiar decorations.
To enter the work of Mary Cassatt it is like entering the world of the relation mother child. From 1891 this topic of predilection becomes almost the single subject of its work. It particularly is fond of the portraits of women and children and chooses its models among the circle of its close friends. Degas will say of it with humor: “ It is inadmissible that a woman draws as well ! ”. Mary Cassatt has great talents of colourist, it excels in the blue ones.
Some of its works point out the pearly period of Pierre Auguste Renoir, whom she imitates perfectly. Mary Cassatt is one of the rare unmarried women to live of her painting.
Eva Gonzalès (1849 -1883) discovers impressionism in 1869, it becomes the pupil and the friend of Edouard Manet. She has the direction of the detail and the color a little as Berthe Morisot she likes the intimate paintings from where gets clear a soft atmosphere and melancholic person.
Anna Boch (1848 - 1936) older sister of the painter Eugene Boch it is very gifted to represent the landscapes with or without characters.
She discovers impressionism on late and never was of avant-garde in its art, however the painting which she carries out are worthy of largest.
She admires Van Gogh and buys 400 francs to him the Red Vine only painting that Vincent sold during his life. Its painting : Corner of the Old Brussels man points out of The Cafe Terrace, at Night. (1888) of Vincent (click to see the analysis).
Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938). It is Toulouse-Lautrec which, the first, detects its talents for the draw. Degas, which ceases supporting it and lavishing its councils to her. Its paintings, drawings and engravings give a vision direct and stripped of sentimentalism, even brutal, daily life. These works are marked by thick and supported features and powerful contrasts of colors.
Louise Abbéma (1853 - 1927) is a as gifted artist with the talents varied for the landscapes as for the portraits, especially the elegant ones, and the allegories. Its work prolific and is varied. One must retain the portraits of Sarah Bernhardt of which it was very near.
Louise Breslau (1856-1926) is born in Munich then request was born Suisse nationality.
Remarkably gifted for the drawing some of its works are comparable with paintings of Berthe Morisot or Marie Cassatt. The set of themes is impressionist but the invoice is nevertheless very realistic.
Its paintings like, especially the portraits, with the Living room, after Rosa Bonheur it becomes, the second woman to receive a gold medal and the first whose paintings is bought by the Town of Paris. It is the third woman and the first not-Frenchwoman, to receive the Legion of honor.
Marie Bashkirtseff (1858-1884) is an academic artist, little influenced by the impressionism which at the time is of avant-garde. Its works are realistic.
Very gifted for the female portraits its models often have an expression melancholic person or thoughtful. The few scenes of kind which one knows of it are models of composition. And it is also gifted for the landscape and the harmony of the colors. Here exceptionally gifted of the painting which passed unperceived or almost…
Anna Ancher (1859-1935) is one of the first Danish artists to understand impressionism. It carries out harmonious paintings with the soft colors but also of very contrasted works where the light comes to play with hot colors and sharp.
Paule Gobillard (1869-1946) is the niece and raises of Berthe Morisot. One finds the style of his aunt in his landscapes, on the other hand it is especially gifted for dead natures and the drawing.
Romaine Brooks (1874 - 1970) is a American painter who is influenced neither by the cubism nor by the Fauvism, it is rather an artist Symbolist. She is famous for the portraits, often life size, which she carries out. The models are often idealized, a specific atmosphere often emerges from the paintings.
Julie Manet (1878 -1966) is the girl of Berthe Morisot and Eugene Manet his paintings are close to those of her mother but also of Renoir.
Marie Laurencin (1883 - 1956) initially was sensitive to the influence of the cubism then it turns to an art characterized by the representation of stylized female figures and the use of a clear pallet.
She fight to find a place honourable in the world of arts and Letters. Its style is sensitive with pure and suave colors, a simplified composition, a predilection for the lengthened and gracious female forms. It quickly becomes portraitist official of female the society man medium (Nicole Groult, Coco Chanel).
Georgia O'Keeffe (1887-1986) At the beginning of her career, Georgia paints especially watercolours, and its subjects of predilection are the naked desert landscapes and female ones stylized. It carries out also works close to surrealism. It is inspired much photography, especially for the flowers, realism and the color is remarkable. It broadcasts its emotions by the color and it does not want to paint what it sees but what it feels. It carries out also a series of paintings devoted to New York in which the city is transformed into phantasmagoric images.
Hanna Höch (1889 - 1978) is one of the first to use the photomontage among the artists Dada, there is a dimensions surrealist which evokes much the paintings of Max Ernst.
Tamara de Lempicka (1898 - 1980) has a personal style very representative of Art Deco at the same time decorative, voluptuous and architectural, its female models are often boys enough ambiguities. Its paintings are easily recognizable, it has a very geometrical manner and its pallet is single. It is in harmony with the mad years of the inter-war period. Around 1930 the style Art Deco becomes old-fashioned, it is forgotten until the fashion Art Deco does not return in the Seventies. In May 2nd, 2012 its Nu fabric Leant 1 was sold in New York 5,458,500 USD.
Lotte Laserstein (1898 - 1993). Driven out of Germany by the Nazis it obtains Swedish nationality by its marriage. It carries out especially portraits of order in a realistic and traditional style. It remains unknown in its native land.
Frida Kahlo (1907 - 1954) is influenced by Indian popular art and surrealism. It is seriously wounded at the time of an accident of bus in 1925, it will suffer a long time from the after-effects from this accident, its painting, the Broken Column (1944), shows its opened body, constant by a metal corset, a broken column holding place of spinal column under the influence of the work of Rivera it adopts in its own works an almost naive style, with the same will to find a mode of expression with the Mexican but so surrealist identity. One of its paintings more sensitive represents the transpierced artist of arrows, such Sebastian Saint, the Small Animal (1946). Frida Kahlo suffered in her flesh but also with love Rivera having forsaken it for her own sister, this shows through in her paintings.
Dora Maar (1907 -1997). At first she makes photography, it is Picasso who directs it towards painting. Of course its long and tumultuous relation with this one the influence. Some of these works are Cubist. But it maintenance also of the bonds with the surrealist ones, a share of dream and imaginary is always present in its works and for some concerning the color and the composition it is often stunning.
Maria Remedios Varo (1908-1963) has a personal universe near to surrealism. At it the world to be created or is in interaction. The human being is in action it transforms and works the world. There is always in this artist of the sons who either are unrolled or are used to constitute the being. A reference to the ropemaking machines or to park which unroll our destiny. The artist is in search of identity the world must be subjected or discovered. Or the characters make strange meetings or seek to change. One always notes a point of irony, paintings seems oneiric but remains nevertheless expressive.
Maria Helena Vieira da Silva (1908 – 1992). Born in Lisbon she studies with the Fernand Léger academy in Paris as from 1928. Very gifted for the abstraction its strap hinge is defined in two words : the line and the color. Sometimes the paintings always are very contrasted it is the color which is the reason for the composition and sometimes the line with splendid harmonies of color. Its paintings can be made of geometrical figures or lines which seem in conflict. After 1945 it returns to Paris where it takes part in many exposures.
Dorothea Tanning (1910-2012). It is by visiting a surrealist exposure to the Museum of Modern art of New York into 1936 that Dorothea Tanning decides to paint. During the second world war she attends the surrealist ones exiled in the United States. Thus it meets Max Ernst of which it becomes the partner. On the other hand in works of Tanning one does not detect the influence of joint sound. Its visions are personal and its specifically female universe. Its oneiric world is rich, ironic, its mink innovates by reversing the erotic prospect in Article It represents the phantasms of the woman as such and not as a projection of the desire of the man. Click to see the site of the author.
Leonor Fini (1908 - 1996). It begins its artistic studies in 1929 in Milan. One year later it is in Paris where it leaves much and paints influenced by the surrealist ones.
Its painting is a surrealism in charge of populated erotism of cats and which refuses the limits, a rather ambiguous world which André Breton does not like at all. It should be said that it represents its own vision of sexuality and likes the universes a little androgynes what the leader of the movement hated completely. The animals (especially cats) remain always the reference. And it is true that with dimensions cat-like one of the person, for the unconscious one, represents its femininity. And in the work of Finished the cats are everywhere…. “The cat is at our sides the memory hot, hairy, man with a moustache and humming of a Lost Paradise.”
Leonora Carrington ( 1917 - 2011). Rejected by its English family it comes to bets then to the USA. In contact with surrealist, Breton and Duchamp especially it finds its way. Its paintings are not stripped of humor and its Pantheon is populated strange creatures semi men, semi animal. It carries out also sculptures.
Emilia Castañeda (1943). Here an artist supplements who as well carries out paintings with oil, the pastel and watercolours. Its still life are true treats for the eyes. In general its works are of a soft and tender sensuality. It can evoke the sometimes soft and tender intimate moments but also passion and the desire. The installations are often languorous and subtly erotic. There is always a reference to the feelings and the tender times. Sometimes its universe becomes slightly surrealist and fantastic proof of the great richness of its inspiration. Web site of the artist. (Click).